Presentation on theme: "INTONATION PATTERNS IN POLISH AND ENGLISH by Joanna Rutkowska Marzena Raczkowska prepared on the basis of Marek, B., Intonation and Emphasis in Polish."— Presentation transcript:
INTONATION PATTERNS IN POLISH AND ENGLISH by Joanna Rutkowska Marzena Raczkowska prepared on the basis of Marek, B., Intonation and Emphasis in Polish and English, PSICL 3 Demenko G., Badania intonacji na potrzeby technologii mowy, WN-UAM 1999
Intonation The intonation of a sentence is the pattern of pitch changes that occurs during the utterance of the sentence.
Presentation of the approach zThe most popular approach in the studies on intonation is so-called BRITISH SCHOOL. zAccording to this approach there are three types of pitch patterns: x-low ( L ) x-high ( H ) x-middle ( M ) zEnglish nuclear tones can be defined in terms of those three kinds of pitch. zIn our presentation we will try to compare Polish and English nuclear tones in terms of these pitch patterns.
To refresh your memory... a tone group (fraza intonacyjna) consists of ypre-head yhead ynucleus (the syllable which carries the main change in pitch) ytail y[prehead [ head [[ nucleus] tail ]]] Oh, Im SO glad to see you
Types of nuclear tones - falls: HL zhigh-low (HL) yPol. Znowu ten wariat. yEng. not present This freak a gain Znowu ten wariat
Types of nuclear tones - falls: ML and HM zmiddle-low (ML) yPol. Bardzo zły znak. yEng. I don't believe it. zhigh-middle (HM) yPol. To nie jest najlepsza poradnia. yEng. What did you do?
Types of nuclear tones - falls: xL zextra-low (xL) yPol. Mówiłem ci, że to jest kiepski nawóz. yEng. not present I told you this was not a good fertiliser. Mówiłam ci, że to jest kiepski nawóz.
zlow-middle (LM) yPol. Byłeś tu już? yEng. Try not to be late. zmiddle-high (MH) yPol. not present yEng. Why don't I write to the secretary, did you say? zlow-high (LH) yPol. Co mówiłeś? yEng. It isn't as bad as all that. Types of nuclear tones- rises: LM, LH
COMPLEX TONES zlow-high-low (LHL) or middle-high-low (MHL) yPol. not present yEng. It's ridiculous. zhigh-low-high (HLH) or middle-low-high (MLH) yPol. not present yEng. No one wants to force you to play. LEVEL TONES zmiddle-middle (MM) yPol. Dwa miasta. yEng. Two cities. Types of nuclear tones (intonacje rdzenne) - other
Differences between nuclear tones in different l-s zSome of the above listed phenomena are universal for different languages zHowever, certain languages show considerable differences in their use of nuclear tones ySTRUCTURAL DIFFERENCES yREALISATIONAL DIFFERENCES ySEMANTIC DIFFERENCES
STRUCTURAL DIFFERENCES Some types of nuclear tones (structures of pitch patterns) are present only in some languages e.g. English HLH nuclear tone is not present in Polish
REALISATIONAL DIFFERENCES Similar intonation patterns appear in different languages, but they are realized in different ways. For example, LM tone is realized differently in English and in Polish: xIn Polish the increase of fundamental frequency occurs most often at the end of a phrase xin English it can occur at the beginning of a phrase
REALISATIONAL DIFFERENCES - illustration Pytasz dlaczego nie piszę do sekretarki? Have you been there? In Polish the increase of fundamental frequency occurs most often at the end of a phrase In English the increase of fundamental frequency can occur at the beginning of a phrase
SEMANTIC DIFFERENCES Intonation patterns can be structurally similar, but they can have different meaning. For example, LH pattern can mean different things in Polish and in English xIn English LH does not indicate a question. In the expression It isn't as bad as all that LH pattern indicates opposition xIn Polish the expression Wcale nie jest znowu taka zła would be probably realized with falling intonation pattern of HL type.
In Polish, opposition is expressed by falling intonation pattern of HL type. In English LH does not indicate a question. It indicates opposition. SEMANTIC DIFFERENCES - illustration It isn't as bad as all that Wcale nie jest znowu taka zła
FOCUS zFocus is a specification assigned to an element of a semantic structure before the latter enters any postsemantic processes, and which can later be manifested in the surface structure by means of a nucleus placed on a corresponding element.
Focus assignement in neutral sentences -1 In case of the neutral sentences the focus is assigned according to the following rules: 1 If the semantic structure contains only one root and this root is a verb root, then this verb root receives the feature FOC (focus) V root ---- V root FOC Eg. It's [[rain] ROOT ing] VERB
Rules for focus assignement (ns) The FOC is assigned to an action verb root if the semantic structure contains this verb root and an agent noun root act V root ---- act V root FOC/ agent noun root eg. [David] NOUN [[laugh] ROOT ed] VERB.
Rules for focus assignement (ns) - 3 3If the semantic structure ycontains a patient and ya beneficiary or an agent noun root the feature FOC will usually be assigned to the patient. patient N root ---- patient N root FOC/benef.,agent eg. [Mary] AGENT opened [the box] PATIENT.
Rules for focus assignement (ns) - 4 4A location noun root, if present, will always have the feature FOC ( except for sentences with existential "there loc N root ---- loc N root FOC eg. A book is on [the table] LOCATION N ROOT. (as opposed to: There is a book on the table.)
Focus assignement in Polish neutral sentences The principle of FOC assignement seems to hold true for Polish, eg. Pada. V root ---- V root FOC Ściemnia się. V root ---- V root FOC Janek zaśmiał się. Act V root ---- act V root FOC/ agt N root Janek wylał mleko. pat N root ---- pat N root FOC/ben, agt Książka leży na stole. loc N root ---- loc N root FOC
EMPHASIS zIntonation can serve as a means of expressing emphasis. zThe semantic structure of an utterance determines the intonation which this utterance receives in the phonetic representation. zThe nature of emphasis is basically the same in Polish and English.
Emphasis - examples 1a. 'Roger is a teacher. 1b. Roger is a teacher. 2a. 'Robert jest Ang likiem. 2b. Robert jest Ang likiem. 3a. Ma rysia jest tan cerką. 3b. Ma rysia jest tan cerką. Sentences of each pair differ in meaning. 1b, 2b and 3b express a contrast which is absent or less obvious in 1a, 2a,3a.
Contrastive and emotive emphasis zNow look at the examples: 1a. Its beautiful! 1b. Jak tu ślicznie! 2a. Roger is a teacher. 2b. Roger jest nauczy cielem. 3a. Roger is a teacher. 3b. Roger jest nauczy cielem. zAll the above sentences can be interpreted as emphatic. It can be also seen that the list contains examples for both contrastive and emotive emphasis.
Focus shift in emphatic sentences The context may sometimes require a shift of FOC from the neutral position of neutral sentences" and place it on some other element of the semantic structure. Such a shift produces emphasis.
The rule for EMPH assignement zThe feature EMPH is placed on focus in contrastive and emotive sentences. zThe nature of emphasis is basically the same in Polish and English X FOC ---- X EMPH/ contr X FOC ---- X EMPH/ emot
Emphasis - illustration Its beautiful Jak tu śli cz nie
Conclusion zThe nature of emphasis and the principle underlying intonation assignement are basically the same in Polish and English. zX FOC ---- X EMPH/ emot [Listen] FOC everybody! [Mary] FOC has arrived! Patrzcie państwo! Marysia przyjechała! zX FOC ---- X EMPH/ contr Roger is a teacher. Roger jest nauczycielem.