Presentation on theme: "INTONATION PATTERNS IN POLISH AND ENGLISH"— Presentation transcript:
1INTONATION PATTERNS IN POLISH AND ENGLISH byJoanna RutkowskaMarzena Raczkowskaprepared on the basis ofMarek, B., Intonation and Emphasis in Polish and English, PSICL 3Demenko G., Badania intonacji na potrzeby technologii mowy, WN-UAM 1999
2IntonationThe intonation of a sentence is the pattern of pitch changes that occurs during the utterance of the sentence.
3Presentation of the approach The most popular approach in the studies on intonation is so-called BRITISH SCHOOL.According to this approach there are three types of pitch patterns:-low ( L )-high ( H )-middle ( M )English nuclear tones can be defined in terms of those three kinds of pitch.In our presentation we will try to compare Polish and English nuclear tones in terms of these pitch patterns.
4[prehead [ head [[ nucleus] tail ]]] To refresh your memory...a tone group (fraza intonacyjna) consists ofpre-headheadnucleus (the syllable which carries the main change in pitch)tail[prehead [ head [[ nucleus] tail ]]]Oh, I’m SO glad to see you
5Types of nuclear tones - falls: HL high-low (HL)Pol. Znowu ten wariat.Eng. not presentThis freak a gainZnowu ten wariat
6Types of nuclear tones - falls: ML and HM middle-low (ML)Pol. Bardzo zły znak.Eng. I don't believe it.high-middle (HM)Pol. To nie jest najlepsza poradnia.Eng. What did you do?
7Types of nuclear tones - falls: xL extra-low (xL)Pol. Mówiłem ci, że to jest kiepski nawóz.Eng. not presentI told you this was not a good fertiliser.Mówiłam ci, że to jest kiepski nawóz.
8Types of nuclear tones - rises: LM, LH low-middle (LM)Pol. Byłeś tu już?Eng. Try not to be late.middle-high (MH)Pol. not presentEng. Why don't I write to the secretary, did you say?low-high (LH)Pol. Co mówiłeś?Eng. It isn't as bad as all that.
9Types of nuclear tones (intonacje rdzenne) - other COMPLEX TONESlow-high-low (LHL) or middle-high-low (MHL)Pol. not presentEng. It's ridiculous.high-low-high (HLH) or middle-low-high (MLH)Eng. No one wants to force you to play.LEVEL TONESmiddle-middle (MM)Pol. Dwa miasta .Eng. Two cities.
10Differences between nuclear tones in different l-s Some of the above listed phenomena are universal for different languagesHowever, certain languages show considerable differences in their use of nuclear tonesSTRUCTURAL DIFFERENCESREALISATIONAL DIFFERENCESSEMANTIC DIFFERENCES
11STRUCTURAL DIFFERENCES Some types of nuclear tones (structures of pitch patterns) are present only in some languagese.g.English HLH nuclear tone is not present in Polish
12REALISATIONAL DIFFERENCES Similar intonation patterns appear in different languages, but they are realized in different ways. For example, LM tone is realized differently in English and in Polish:In Polish the increase of fundamental frequency occurs most often at the end of a phrasein English it can occur at the beginning of a phrase
13REALISATIONAL DIFFERENCES - illustration In English the increase of fundamental frequencycan occur at the beginning of a phraseIn Polish the increase of fundamental frequencyoccurs most often at the end of a phraseHave you been there?Pytasz dlaczego nie piszę do sekretarki?
14SEMANTIC DIFFERENCESIntonation patterns can be structurally similar, but they can have different meaning. For example, LH pattern can mean different things in Polish and in EnglishIn English LH does not indicate a question. In the expressionIt isn't as bad as all thatLH pattern indicates oppositionIn Polish the expressionWcale nie jest znowu taka zławould be probably realized with falling intonation pattern of HL type.
15SEMANTIC DIFFERENCES - illustration In English LH does not indicate a question.It indicates opposition.In Polish, opposition is expressed byfalling intonation pattern of HL type.It isn't as bad as all thatWcale nie jest znowu taka zła
16FOCUSFocus is a specification assigned to an element of a semantic structure before the latter enters any postsemantic processes, and which can later be manifested in the surface structure by means of a nucleus placed on a corresponding element.
17Focus assignement in neutral sentences -1 In case of the ”neutral sentences” the focus is assigned according to the following rules:1 If the semantic structure contains only one root and this root is a verb root, then this verb root receives the feature FOC (focus)V root ---- V root FOCEg. It's [[rain]ROOTing]VERB
18Rules for focus assignement (ns) - 2 2 The FOC is assigned to an action verb root if the semantic structure contains this verb root and an agent noun rootact V root ---- act V root FOC/ agent noun rooteg. [David]NOUN [[laugh]ROOTed]VERB.
19Rules for focus assignement (ns) - 3 3 If the semantic structurecontains a patient anda beneficiary or an agent noun rootthe feature FOC will usually be assigned to the patient.patient N root ---- patient N root FOC/benef.,agenteg. [Mary]AGENT opened [the box]PATIENT.
20Rules for focus assignement (ns) - 4 4 A location noun root, if present, will always have the feature FOC ( except for sentences with existential "there”loc N root ---- loc N root FOCeg. A book is on [the table]LOCATION N ROOT.(as opposed to: There is a book on the table.)
21Focus assignement in Polish neutral sentences The principle of FOC assignement seems to hold true for Polish, eg.Pada V root ---- V root FOCŚciemnia się V root ---- V root FOCJanek zaśmiał się. Act V root ---- act V root FOC/ agt N rootJanek wylał mleko. pat N root ---- pat N root FOC/ben, agtKsiążka leży na stole. loc N root ---- loc N root FOC
22EMPHASIS Intonation can serve as a means of expressing emphasis. The semantic structure of an utterance determines the intonation which this utterance receives in the phonetic representation.The nature of emphasis is basically the same in Polish and English.
23Emphasis - examples 1a. 'Roger is a teacher. 1b. Roger is a teacher. 2a. 'Robert jest Ang likiem.2b. Robert jest Ang likiem.3a. Ma rysia jest tan cerką.3b. Ma rysia jest tan cerką.Sentences of each pair differ in meaning. 1b, 2b and 3b express a contrast which is absent or less obvious in 1a, 2a ,3a.
24Contrastive and emotive emphasis Now look at the examples:1a. It’s beautiful!1b. Jak tu ślicznie!2a. Roger is a teacher.2b. Roger jest nauczy cielem.3a. Roger is a teacher.3b. Roger jest nauczy cielem.All the above sentences can be interpreted as emphatic. It can be also seen that the list contains examples for both contrastive and emotive emphasis.
25Focus shift in emphatic sentences The context may sometimes require a shift of FOC from the neutral position of ”neutral sentences" and place it on some other element of the semantic structure. Such a shift produces emphasis.
26The rule for EMPH assignement The feature EMPH is placed on focus in contrastive and emotive sentences.The nature of emphasis is basically the same in Polish and EnglishX FOC ---- X EMPH/ contrX FOC ---- X EMPH/ emot
27Emphasis - illustration It’s beautifulJak tu śli cz nie
28ConclusionThe nature of emphasis and the principle underlying intonation assignement are basically the same in Polish and English.X FOC ---- X EMPH/ emot[Listen]FOC everybody! [Mary]FOC has arrived!Patrzcie państwo! Marysia przyjechała!X FOC ---- X EMPH/ contrRoger is a teacher.Roger jest nauczycielem.