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IIIIIIIV The Mole I. Molar Conversions

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A. What is the Mole? n A counting unit n Similar to a dozen, except instead of 12, it’s 602 billion trillion 602,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 n 6.02 X 10 23 (in scientific notation) n This number is named in honor of n Amedeo Avogadro (1776 – 1856) n Amedeo Avogadro (1776 – 1856),

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n 1 mole of hockey pucks would equal the mass of the moon! A. What is the Mole? n 1 mole of pennies would cover the Earth 1/4 mile deep! n 1 mole of basketballs would fill a bag the size of the earth!

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How does a Mole relate? n 1 Mol = 6.02 x 10 23 particles n If I had 1 mol of cookies, how many cookies would I have? n If I had 1 mol of cars, how many cars would I have? n If I had 1 mol of Aluminum, how many atoms would I have? n Note that the NUMBER is always the same, but the MASS is very different!

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= 6.02 x 10 23 C atoms = 6.02 x 10 23 H 2 O molecules = 6.02 x 10 23 NaCl “formula units” 6.02 x 10 23 Na + ions and 6.02 x 10 23 Cl – ions A Mole of Anything A Mole of Anything Contains 6.02 x 10 23 particles 1 mole C 1 mole H 2 O 1 mole NaCl

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Avogadro's Number n That means in 1.008 grams of Hydrogen, there are: 6.02x10 23 atoms OR 602,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 n And that 18.99 grams of Flourine, there are: 6.02x10 23 atoms OR 602,000,000,000,000,000,000,000

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Molar Mass n Describes the mass of 1 mole of an element or compound. n Atomic mass tells the... grams per mole (g/mol), used to describe the mass of one mole of an element or chemical compound. n Round to 2 decimal places!

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B. Molar Mass Examples n carbon n aluminum n zinc 12.01 g/mol 26.98 g/mol 65.39 g/mol

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B. Molar Mass Examples n water n sodium chloride H2OH2O 2(1.01) + 16.00 = 18.02 g/mol NaCl 22.99 + 35.45 = 58.44 g/mol

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B. Molar Mass Examples n sodium bicarbonate n sucrose NaHCO 3 22.99 + 1.01 + 12.01 + 3(16.00) = 84.01 g/mol C 12 H 22 O 11 12(12.01) + 22(1.01) + 11(16.00) = 342.34 g/mol

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C. Multiple Moles Examples n 2 moles of water n 3.4 moles of sodium chloride 2 x (H 2 O) 2 x (2x(1.01) + 16.00) = 36.04 g The units of grams is because we now have multiple moles… 3.4 x (NaCl) 3.4 x (22.99 + 35.45) = 198.70 g

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