2 Brief History Emeralds and beryl both known to the Egyptians It wasn’t realized that emeralds and beryl are the same mineral (beryllium aluminum silicate) until the end of the 18 centuryDiscovered by Louis Nicolas Vauquelin ( ) in 1797 in FranceOrigin of name: from Greek word “beryllos” meaning “beryl”Isolated much later on in 1828 by Friedrich Wohler and Antoine Bussy by the action of potassium on BeCl2 in a platinum crucible
3 Important Characteristics Group 2 element (alkaline earth metal) and period two elementS-block elementResists oxidation in air at ordinary temperaturesBeryllium compounds are very toxicIt can scratch glassAquamarine and emerald are precious forms of the mineral berylTendency to lose an electronCompounds are rather covalent
4 Important Properties Melting point: 1,287 degrees Celsius Boiling point: 2,469 degrees CelsiusStandard state: solidMetalDensity: 1.85 g/cm^3Oxidation number: +2Electronegativity: 1.57Atomic radius: 112pmSteel grey in colorIt is hard and brittleShiny, metallic luster
5 Important Uses X-ray windows Ceramics A moderator in nuclear reactions Springs, electrodes, and nonsparking toolsHigh performance aircraft, missiles, spacecraft (such as the U.S.A. space shuttle), communication satellitesGyroscopes, computer parts, and musical instrumentsMilitary applicationsMirrorsJewelry (emeralds, etc.)Welding
6 Value of Beryllium in Chemistry Cost per gram: $0.93 per gramLightest member of the alkaline earth metalsUsed as a low percentage component of hard alloys,especially with copper as the main constituent but also with nickel- and iron-based alloys-strengthens copper to help prevent sparking when used in tools-bonded to metals to reduce inflammability and tarnishing
7 Fun FactBecause any beryllium synthesized in stars is short-lived, it is a relatively rare element in both the universe and in the crust of the earth.