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March 7, 2011 Chapter 3 Quiz tomorrow – key ideas and vocabulary! Outline is due!! We will review our exams tomorrow – lots of kids need to take it today.

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Presentation on theme: "March 7, 2011 Chapter 3 Quiz tomorrow – key ideas and vocabulary! Outline is due!! We will review our exams tomorrow – lots of kids need to take it today."— Presentation transcript:

1 March 7, 2011 Chapter 3 Quiz tomorrow – key ideas and vocabulary! Outline is due!! We will review our exams tomorrow – lots of kids need to take it today. Create your own food web ~ –Terrestrial towards the door. –Aquatic towards the prep room. –Who eats who? Set it up and once finished connect yourselves with string…

2 Chapter 3 The Biosphere What is Ecology?

3 Ecology is the study of the interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environment.

4 The biosphere is the area around planet earth where life exists. It extends from 8 km. in the atmosphere to 11 km. below the surface of the ocean.

5 Levels of Organization 1. species-a group of organisms so similar to each other that they can breed and produce fertile offspring 2. populations-groups of individuals of the same species that live in in a given area 3. communities-all the different populations that live in a defined area 4. ecosystem-all the communities in a given area together with the physical environment 5. biome-a group of ecosystems that have the same climate and similar dominant communities

6 Species

7 Populations

8 Communities

9 Ecosystem

10 Biome – ex: Tundra

11 BIOSPHERE – ALL PARTS OF THE EARTH WHERE LIFE EXISTS INCLUDING LAND, WATER AND AIR ATMOSPHERE LITHOSPHERE HYDROSPHERE

12 Ecological Methods: Observing

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14 Ecological Methods: Experimenting

15 Ecological Methods: Modeling Make models: -math formulas -data tested by further obs.

16 March 8, 2011 Review exam – page by page! –Retest tutorial – Wed AM with Coach Schroeder Wed PM with Coach Fall –Retest – Thursday AM with Coach Schroeder Thursday PM with Coach Fall –Let me know if you need a pass! Warm Up: What are the levels of biosphere organization from smallest to largest? Chapter 3 Quiz!

17 ENERGY FLOW The main source of energy for all life on earth is the sun, but less than 1% is used by living things

18 II. Energy Flow A. Producers or Autotrophs-use energy from the environment to assemble simple inorganic compounds into complex organic molecules **make their own food! 1. photosynthesis-process through which plants and algae take light energy to power chemical reactions that convert CO 2 and H 2 O into O 2 and energy-rich carbohydrates 2. chemosynthesis-process through which some bacteria break down inorganic molecules releasing energy that they use to make energy- rich carbohydrates

19 Capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use that energy to produce food. Use energy from the environment to fuel the assembly of inorganic compounds into organic molecules PRODUCERS/AUTOTROPHS (Includes plants, some algae, & some bacteria)

20 Autotrophs-producers-photosynthesis

21 Autotrophs-producers-chemosynthesis: bacteria at a deep sea vent

22 B. Consumers or Heterotrophs-cannot harness energy from the environment; must get their energy from other organisms 1. herbivores - eat only plants 2. carnivores - eat only animals 3. omnivores - eat both plants and animals 4. detritivores – eat dead matter and recycle them to the soil 5. decomposers – break down organic matter

23 CONSUMERS/HETEROTROPHS GET ENERGY FROM OTHER ORGANISMS HERBIVORESCARNIVORESOMNIVORES EAT PLANTS EAT ANIMALS EAT BOTH

24 DETRITIVORES: EAT DEAD MATTER DECOMPOSERS - BREAK DOWN ORGANIC MATTER EX. BACTERIA AND FUNGI CONSUMERS (CONTINUED)

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28 1. Chemosynthesisa. Autotroph 2. Herbivoreb. Takes in food from other sources 3. Producerc. Consumes plants 4. Consumerd. Group of organisms that produce fertile offspring 5. Photosynthesise. Consumes plants or animals 6. Population f. Living and nonliving things in an area 7. Speciesg. Group of organisms of same kind in an area 8. Omnivoreh. Produce food (organic compounds) from inorganic chemicals 9. Ecosystem i. Living and nonliving things in earth 10. Biosphere j. Producer that uses sun’s energy to make organic compounds

29 March 9, 2011 You will get your quizzes back on Friday. We will review them then. Warm Up: –What is the difference between a food chain and a food web? –What is a trophic level? –Describe the flow of energy through 3 trophic levels.

30 C. Feeding Relationships Energy flows through an ecosystem in one direction, from the sun or inorganic compounds to autotrophs and then to heterotrophs. 1. food chains-a series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten *1 PATH* 2. food web-a graphic representation of all the food chains in a given environment *MULTIPLE PATHS* trophic levels-each step in a food chain or web Primary  Secondary  Tertiary

31 TROPHIC LEVELS Steps in food chain; 1st trophic level is producer; 2nd and up are consumers

32 ENERGY DECREASES THE HIGHER UP THE CHAIN YOU GO FOOD CHAIN EXAMPLES

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34 Food Web

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36 “The greater number of alternative channels through which energy can flow, the greater the stability of the food web and the ecosystem.”

37 Name a 1st order consumer, 2nd order consumer, producer, decomposer, top level consumer, autotroph, heterotroph, primary consumer, secondary consumer from the food web above.

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39 March 21, 2011 Welcome back…hope you had a great week! Review Food Web Packets! Notes on Different Pyramids. Notes on Cycles. Cycles of Matter Handout.

40 D. Ecological Pyramids- a diagram that shows the relative amounts of energy or matter contained within each trophic level in a food chain or web 1. Energy pyramid- Only about 10% of the energy available within one trophic level is transferred to organisms at the next trophic level **Rest is given off as heat!!!** 2. Biomass pyramid biomass-the total amount of living tissue within a given trophic level 3. Pyramid of numbers- shows relative number of individual organisms at each tropic level

41 ENERGY PYRAMIDS SHOWS AMOUNT OF ENERGY OR MATTER WITHIN EACH TROPHIC LEVEL Pyramid of Numbers Shows the relative number of individual organisms at each trophic level. Biomass Pyramid Represents the amount of living organic matter at each trophic level. Typically, the greatest biomass is at the base of the pyramid. Energy Pyramid Shows the relative amount of energy available at each trophic level. Organisms use about 10 percent of this energy for life processes. The rest is lost as heat.

42 Only about 10% of available energy transfers to the next level If we start with 4000 calories of food energy at the base, how much is available for the man? How much would he lose as heat and use for body processes? ENERGY PYRAMID

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44 Pyramid of Numbers

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46 When would a pyramid of numbers not appear as a pyramid?

47 BIOMASS PYRAMID

48 Which word doesn’t belong? 1 st order consumer Herbivore 1 st trophic level Heterotroph Producer Autotroph Photosynthesis Chemiosmosis Herbivore Consumer Chemosynthesis Heterotroph Carnivore Herbivore Omnivore Decomposer

49 Cycles of Matter Unlike energy flowing in one direction, matter cycles! Biogeochemical cycles Systems do not use up matter, they transform it The same molecules are passed around again and again in the biosphere. –Could we be breathing in the same air the dinosaurs did????

50 The Water Cycle

51 Condensation

52 Nutrient Cycles Nutrients: all chemical substances that an organism needs to sustain life. Passed between organisms and environment

53 Carbon Cycle Four main process move carbon through its cycle: 1. Biological process- photosynthesis, respiration and decomposition 2. Geochemical process- erosion and volcanic activity 3. Mixed biogeochemical- burial and decomposition of dead organisms converted into fossil fuels 4. Human activities- mining, cutting and burning forests and burning fossil fuels

54 CO 2 in Atmosphere CO 2 in Ocean CARBON CYCLE

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56 Nitrogen Cycle Organisms require nitrogen for AA. Most abundant: nitrogen gas or N2 - 78% of atmosphere Ammonia, nitrate and nitrite ions are found in waste products –Also found in ocean and large water bodies Human activity adds nitrogen as nitrate due to fertilizers Nitrogen fixation – bacteria covert nitrogen gas into ammonia  Nitrates/nitrites  producers use these to make proteins!! Denitrification – When organisms die, decomposers return nitrogen to the soil as ammonia – taken in by producers. Soil bacteria convert nitrates  nitrogen gas, releasing nitrogen back into the atmosphere!!!

57 N 2 in Atmosphere NH 3 NO 3 - and NO 2 - NITROGEN CYCLE

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59 Phosphorus Cycle Essential because part of DNA and RNA Not very common in the atmosphere Remains mostly on land in rock and soil minerals, and in ocean sediments as inorganic phosphate. When rocks and sediments wear down, phosphate is released. On land, some of the phosphate washes into rivers and streams where it dissolves.

60 PHOSPHORUS CYCLE

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62 Nutrient Limitation Primary Productivity: rate at which organic matter is created by producers Factors: amount of nutrients available Limiting Nutrient: single nutrient that limits ecosystem because is scarce or slowly cycles –Nitrogen in oceanic environments –Phosphorus in freshwater environments Ex. Farmers use fertilizers –Algal bloom


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