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Chapter 1 Introduction to Matter Section 1 Describing Matter

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1 Chapter 1 Introduction to Matter Section 1 Describing Matter

2 Properties of Matter Each specific substance has its own combination of properties that can be used to identify the substance. Chemistry is the study of the properties of matter and how matter changes.

3 Kinds of Matter Elements
An element is a substance that cannot be broken down into any other substances by chemical or physical means. Elements are called the building blocks of matter because all matter is composed of elements.

4 Kinds of Matter Elements
Each element is made up of tiny particles called atoms. Each element has its own symbol, which is a one or two letter set of characters used to identify an element. Ex: C = carbon, Au = gold, Al = aluminum, etc.

5 Periodic Table of Elements

6 Kinds of Matter Compounds
A compound is a substance made of two or more elements chemically combined in a specific ratio. For example, CO2 = 1 Carbon atom and 2 Oxygen atoms add up to Carbon Dioxide.

7 Kinds of Matter Compounds
Each compound is represented by a formula that uses symbols to identify which elements are present. A formula is a combination of symbols that shows the ratio of elements in a compound. Ex: H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide) is different than H2O (water)

8 Chemical Compounds

9 Kinds of Matter Mixtures
Most matter in the environment is a mixture, made from two or more substances – elements, compounds, or both – that are together in the same place but are not chemically combined into a new substance. Ex: Water is not pure in nature, but mixed with salt, dirt, etc.

10 Mixtures

11 Kinds of Matter Mixtures Mixtures differ from compounds in 2 ways:
The substances in a mixture keep their own properties instead of forming a new material. The parts of a mixture are not necessarily present in specific ratios.

12 Changes in Matter Physical Change
A physical change is a change that alters the form or appearance of a material but does not convert the material into new substances. Ex: changing water from a liquid to a solid will change its appearance and form, but it is still water.

13 Physical Change

14 Changes in Matter Chemical Change
A chemical change, or chemical reaction, is a change in matter that produces new substances. Ex: an iron nail beginning to rust.

15 Chemical Change

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