Presentation on theme: "Reconstruction A Second Civil War?"— Presentation transcript:
1 Reconstruction A Second Civil War? Ms. GeweckeUnit 3Reconstruction
2 What is Reconstruction? This was a period of time after the Civil War ( )Attempts were made to readmit the South to the UnionThis is a period of rebuilding physically, politically, and socially
3 Political Reconstruction: Lincoln’s Plan A moderate Reconstruction PolicyIssued in December 1863Proclamation of Amnesty or the Ten-Percent PlanUnder this plan:All Confederates who swore allegiance to the Union would be Pardoned (except high-ranking officials and those who committed crimes against POWs)Once 10% of those who had voted in took the oath, the state would be readmitted
4 Political Reconstruction: Lincoln’s Plan This plan angered a minority of Republicans in CongressKnown as Radical RepublicansWhat did Radical Republicans want?To destroy the political power of the SouthTo give African-Americans full citizenship and the right to vote
5 Political Reconstruction: Johnson’s Plan Lincoln was assassinated before his plan could go into full effectNew President Andrew Johnson had adifferent idea for ReconstructionMay 1865 Johnson announced his plan for ReconstructionIt was similar to Lincoln’s but excluded more Confederates from being pardoned
6 Political Reconstruction: Johnson’s Plan Pardons would be granted to those taking aloyalty oathNo pardons would be available to highConfederate officials and persons owningproperty valued in excess of $20,000A state needed to abolish slavery before beingreadmitted (Ratify the Thirteenth Amendment)A state was required to repeal its secessionordinance before being readmitted
7 Political Reconstruction: Congress Congress was upset that Reconstruction was under the control of the Executive BranchRadical and Moderate Republicans joinedtogether to move the process ofReconstruction to the Legislative Branch. They gained control in 1866They overruled Johnson’s Civil Rights Act and Freedman’s Bureau Act
8 Political Reconstruction: Congress They drafted the Fourteenth AmendmentWhat is the significance of the Fourteenth Amendment?
9 Political Reconstruction: Johnson Impeached! Radicals in Congress believed Johnson was blocking ReconstructionThey set him up by saying he violated the Tenure of Office ActHouse Impeached JohnsonSenate voted not to convict himJohnson stayed in office
10 Political Reconstruction: Grant Elected In 1868 Ulysses S. Grant was electedpresident (by a small margin)The importance of the Grant election wasthe support of the African-American vote9 out of 10 African-Americans voted for Grant and the Republican Party
11 Social Reconstruction: Postwar South The South was in complete disarray physically and economicallyThe war had destroyed a lot of propertyand thousands of people had died (lowpopulation)The new Republican governments did try to help through public works programs and social services
12 The Collapse of Reconstruction: Opposition Three major groups made up the Republican Party in the South and had different goals:ScalawagsCarpetbaggersAfrican-AmericansThere was also conflict between white Southerners (who did not like blacks’ being free) and African-Americans (who were now trying to live as U.S. citizens)
14 The Collapse of Reconstruction: Opposition Many white Southerners agreed to follow what the North said but some white Southerners did not agreeThese people often formed their own groups (like the KKK)They resorted to violence and intimidation to achieve their goalsWhat was the KKK and what were the goals of the group?
15 The Collapse of Reconstruction: Opposition The violence and intimidation was so bad that Congress had to pass several laws:Enforcement Acts of 1870 and 1871The president could use federal troop in areas where the KKK was highly activeThese acts limited Southern Democrat’s political powerHowever, the Freeman’s Bureau came to an end in 1872And the Amnesty Act (1872) restored the vote to many former Confederates, restoring Democratic political power
16 The End of Reconstruction The Republican Party began to break apart and Radical Republicans could no longer carry out their plansThe Supreme Court began to reverse social and political changes that had fueled ReconstructionSouthern Democrats achieved “redemption” and made a deal with the Republicans during the 1876 election
17 The End of Reconstruction This deal entailed:The Southern Democrats would agree to elect HayesIn exchange federal troops would be withdrawn from the SouthThe Republicans agreed and Reconstruction in the South came to an endWhat remained was the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments
18 The Thirteenth Amendment It was ratified at the end of 1865It stated:“Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States”What was the significance of the Amendment?
19 The Fourteenth Amendment It was drafted in 1866 and ratified in 1868The amendment grants citizenship to "all persons born or naturalized in the United States“It forbids any state to deny any person "life, liberty or property, without due process of law" or to "deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.“This is known as the “Reconstruction Amendment”Who drafted the Fourteenth Amendment and why?
20 The Fifteenth Amendment This was a reaction to the electionIt stated that no one could be kept from voting because of “race, color, or previous servitude”This was ratified by the states in 1870Why was there a need for the Fifteenth Amendment?
21 The Amendments: Review The Thirteenth AmendmentOfficially abolished slaveryThe Fourteenth AmendmentPrevented states from denying rights to U.S. citizensThe Fifteenth AmendmentNo one can be restricted from voting because of race, color or previous condition of servitude