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Reconstruction A Second Civil War?

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1 Reconstruction A Second Civil War?
Ms. Gewecke Unit 3 Reconstruction

2 What is Reconstruction?
This was a period of time after the Civil War ( ) Attempts were made to readmit the South to the Union This is a period of rebuilding physically, politically, and socially

3 Political Reconstruction: Lincoln’s Plan
A moderate Reconstruction Policy Issued in December 1863 Proclamation of Amnesty or the Ten-Percent Plan Under this plan: All Confederates who swore allegiance to the Union would be Pardoned (except high-ranking officials and those who committed crimes against POWs) Once 10% of those who had voted in took the oath, the state would be readmitted

4 Political Reconstruction: Lincoln’s Plan
This plan angered a minority of Republicans in Congress Known as Radical Republicans What did Radical Republicans want? To destroy the political power of the South To give African-Americans full citizenship and the right to vote

5 Political Reconstruction: Johnson’s Plan
Lincoln was assassinated before his plan could go into full effect New President Andrew Johnson had a different idea for Reconstruction May 1865 Johnson announced his plan for Reconstruction It was similar to Lincoln’s but excluded more Confederates from being pardoned

6 Political Reconstruction: Johnson’s Plan
Pardons would be granted to those taking a loyalty oath No pardons would be available to high Confederate officials and persons owning property valued in excess of $20,000 A state needed to abolish slavery before being readmitted (Ratify the Thirteenth Amendment) A state was required to repeal its secession ordinance before being readmitted

7 Political Reconstruction: Congress
Congress was upset that Reconstruction was under the control of the Executive Branch Radical and Moderate Republicans joined together to move the process of Reconstruction to the Legislative Branch. They gained control in 1866 They overruled Johnson’s Civil Rights Act and Freedman’s Bureau Act

8 Political Reconstruction: Congress
They drafted the Fourteenth Amendment What is the significance of the Fourteenth Amendment?

9 Political Reconstruction: Johnson Impeached!
Radicals in Congress believed Johnson was blocking Reconstruction They set him up by saying he violated the Tenure of Office Act House Impeached Johnson Senate voted not to convict him Johnson stayed in office

10 Political Reconstruction: Grant Elected
In 1868 Ulysses S. Grant was elected president (by a small margin) The importance of the Grant election was the support of the African-American vote 9 out of 10 African-Americans voted for Grant and the Republican Party

11 Social Reconstruction: Postwar South
The South was in complete disarray physically and economically The war had destroyed a lot of property and thousands of people had died (low population) The new Republican governments did try to help through public works programs and social services

12 The Collapse of Reconstruction: Opposition
Three major groups made up the Republican Party in the South and had different goals: Scalawags Carpetbaggers African-Americans There was also conflict between white Southerners (who did not like blacks’ being free) and African-Americans (who were now trying to live as U.S. citizens)


14 The Collapse of Reconstruction: Opposition
Many white Southerners agreed to follow what the North said but some white Southerners did not agree These people often formed their own groups (like the KKK) They resorted to violence and intimidation to achieve their goals What was the KKK and what were the goals of the group?

15 The Collapse of Reconstruction: Opposition
The violence and intimidation was so bad that Congress had to pass several laws: Enforcement Acts of 1870 and 1871 The president could use federal troop in areas where the KKK was highly active These acts limited Southern Democrat’s political power However, the Freeman’s Bureau came to an end in 1872 And the Amnesty Act (1872) restored the vote to many former Confederates, restoring Democratic political power

16 The End of Reconstruction
The Republican Party began to break apart and Radical Republicans could no longer carry out their plans The Supreme Court began to reverse social and political changes that had fueled Reconstruction Southern Democrats achieved “redemption” and made a deal with the Republicans during the 1876 election

17 The End of Reconstruction
This deal entailed: The Southern Democrats would agree to elect Hayes In exchange federal troops would be withdrawn from the South The Republicans agreed and Reconstruction in the South came to an end What remained was the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments

18 The Thirteenth Amendment
It was ratified at the end of 1865 It stated: “Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States” What was the significance of the Amendment?

19 The Fourteenth Amendment
It was drafted in 1866 and ratified in 1868 The amendment grants citizenship to "all persons born or naturalized in the United States“ It forbids any state to deny any person "life, liberty or property, without due process of law" or to "deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.“ This is known as the “Reconstruction Amendment” Who drafted the Fourteenth Amendment and why?

20 The Fifteenth Amendment
This was a reaction to the election It stated that no one could be kept from voting because of “race, color, or previous servitude” This was ratified by the states in 1870 Why was there a need for the Fifteenth Amendment?

21 The Amendments: Review
The Thirteenth Amendment Officially abolished slavery The Fourteenth Amendment Prevented states from denying rights to U.S. citizens The Fifteenth Amendment No one can be restricted from voting because of race, color or previous condition of servitude

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