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EmBeR Grammaticalization of mental predicate constructions in Polish by Iwona Kokorniak and Malgorzata Fabiszak Grammaticalization and Data, Rouen, France,

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Presentation on theme: "EmBeR Grammaticalization of mental predicate constructions in Polish by Iwona Kokorniak and Malgorzata Fabiszak Grammaticalization and Data, Rouen, France,"— Presentation transcript:

1 EmBeR Grammaticalization of mental predicate constructions in Polish by Iwona Kokorniak and Malgorzata Fabiszak Grammaticalization and Data, Rouen, France, 10-11 May 2012

2 Overview 1. Grammaticalization 2. Aspect in Slavic 3. Meaning of myśleć think 4. Aim of the study 5. Prefix semantics 6. Meaning analysis of Perfective prefixed forms of myśleć 7. Quantitative data 8. Degrees of grammaticalization

3 Grammaticalization Grammaticalization - the attribution of a grammatical character to a previously autonomous word (Meillet [1912] 1948: 131, as quoted in Hopper 1991: 17) The resultant forms are grammatical, i.e. part of grammar (Hopper 1991: 34 fn. 2) Instances of grammaticalization: Categories which are morphologized might safely be said to be part of grammar

4 Grammaticalization Grammaticalization may take place by: desemanticization, bleaching, emptying or loss of semantic or pragmatic meaning, increase in abstractness, or increase in bondedness: forms may become less free and more bound (Traugott and Heine 1991: 4-7)

5 Grammaticalization Semantic context, salience and relative frequency constitute factors that contribute to grammaticalization Grammaticalization is a question of degree: increased syntacticization in its early stages, and increased loss of morphosyntactic independence in its later stages, ultimately leading to zero, i.e. increased morphologization, and phonologization (Traugott and Heine 1991: 3) the more grammaticalized a form, the more frequent it is (Bybee at al 1991: 59- 90)

6 Grammaticalization Only certain lexical classes are likely to become grammaticalized (Traugott and Heine 1991: 7-8): Prepositions Postpositions Affixes Reflexives Aspect, number, tense and case, among others, occur frequently across languages as affixal morphology

7 Semantics of myśleć think characterized by semantic generality and impoverishment (Danielewiczowa 2002: 131) Highly polysemous: translated as 1)to find relationships between/among things (to meditate, cogitate, understand, judge, consider, think deeply, 2)to remember, care about something/somebody and 3)to intend to do something (Doroszewski 2005, SPP) myśleć think, when unaccompanied by any prefix, can be considered an imperfective verb its aspect may change into the perfective one by means of adding a prefix

8 Aspect in Polish It is obligatorily expressed by all verb forms, regardless of tense or other grammatical categories, marked by a system of aspectual affixes (prefixes and suffixes) A system of Prefectivizing prefixes (po-, na-, ob-, do-, etc.) and Imperfectivizing suffixes (- a, -y/iwa, -wa, etc) is used to represent aspect Verbs with no aspectual prefixes are usually Imperfective (IMPF) e.g. myśleć (IMPF) – wymyślić (P) - wymyślać (IMPF) Slavic prefixes were first semantically heavy, later developed their aspectual function of Perfectivity (Comrie 1976: 89-90) po- in Russian (also in Polish) the most neutral semantically (often forms strict aspectual pairs): myśleć - pomyśleć

9 The meaning of aspect in Slavic (Dickey 2000) east-west aspect theory for Slavic languages totality – central semantic category of the western perfective (Czech, Slovak, Sorbian, Slovene) temporal definitness – central semantic category of the eastern perfective (Russian, Ukrainian, Belarusian, Bulgarian) a temporally definite event is viewed as both (a) complete whole and (b) qualitatively different from preceding and subsequent states of affairs (Dickey and Hutcheson 2003: 27- 28). Transitional zone – Serbo-Croatian and Polish, where the perfective aspect is a radial or polysemous category with a secondary, local prototype (Dickey 2000: 39) Polish closer to the eastern group

10 Aspect in Slavic: A cognitive approach (Janda 2004, 2007) Distinction crucial to the entire aspectual system: - completable actions – head towards a result, motivated by the metaphor A COMPLETABLE ACTION IS TRAVEL TO A DESTINATION - non-completable actions – no heading towards a result; only them can have Complex Act Perfectives known as Aktionsarten or actionality (Janda 2007: 94) myśleć – pomyśleć (think for a while) IMPERFECTIVE IS A FLUID SUBSTANCE PERFECTIVE IS A DISCRETE SOLID po-, pro- (prze-) are Perfective (DISCRETE SOLID) have perdurative and delimitative meanings, focus on punctuality. Janda (2004, 2007)

11 Aspect in Polish: A cognitive approach (Kochańska 2007) Perfective – sanctioned in Polish when the endpoints of the profiled process fall properly within the conceptual viewing frame and are therefore clearly visible to the conceptualizer (Kochańska 2007: 156). Imperfective – used when the conceptualizer specifically focuses on the extended duration of the profiled process, conceptualizing its temporal expanse as completely filling the adopted temporal viewing frame; the processual endpoints are construed as coinciding with the boundaries of the immediate scope, rather than falling properly within them (Kochańska 2007: 157) Thus, present-time processes are always designated by non-past imperfectives (Myślę o rozsądnym rozwiązaniu I am thinking about a reasonable solution; non-past perfectives, on the other hand, have the future-time meaning (Pomyślę o tym I will think about it

12 Aspectual pairs within a network of verbs expressing a single lexical meaning, Langacker (1999: 103), views aspectual pairhood as a categorizing relationship between a pair of imperfective and perfective verbs that has a high degree of entrenchment and ease of activation myśleć think– depending on the context, certain construals will be sanctioned and in each case a different pair of verbs, which are mutually linked by an entrenched categorizing relationship, is activated

13 Aim of the study 1)which prefixes combined with myśleć are most grammaticalized and which are not? 2) Why can they be considered as grammaticalized / not grammaticalized?

14 Aspectual pairs of myśleć by Cockiewicz (1992: 183) - myśleć : pomyśleć (P); think sth - myśleć : namyślić się make up ones mind - domyślić się (P): domyślać się (IMPF) guess sth - obmyślić (P): obmyślać (IMPF) think about - namyślić się (P): namyślać się (IMPF) make up ones mind - przemyśleć (P) : przemyśliwać (IMPF) think over/through -wymyślić (P): wymyślać (IMPF) come up with - zamyślić się (P):zamyślać się (IMPF) fall into deep thought - zmyślić (P): zmyślać (IMPF) make up sth - rozmyślić się (P)change ones mind: rozmyślać meditate

15 Prefix semantics do– indicates an approximation to a goal or result; some effort; reaching the goal may involve encountering certain difficulties along the way, where the trajector (TR) makes every effort to achieve the goal despite any obstacles; na– indicates an intensity of an action; expresses a cumulative process ob– the image schema involved here refers to a circular motion of TR around LM po– forms delimitative verbs to indicate (i) a short duration of an action; (ii) a limited nature of an action; does not involve the attainment of any obvious goal (atelic) prze– may depict a three dimensional and bounded LM, such as a tunnel in which the TR moves from one end to the other, where the TR gradually fills the whole volume of the landmark (Pasich-Piasecka 1993: 19)

16 Prefix semantics roz– in its basic image schema represents the TR and landmark LM constituting one entity before a change and taking different forms afterwards. Thus, the comparison of the two states of the entity before and after the change profiles different senses of roz-. u– in one of its image schemas the LM is construed as s a collection of entities among which the selected TR is located; thus, the TR constitutes part of the LM wy– construal of the TRs emergence from the LM, or its coming into existence by leaving the bounded region of the LM; the container image schema evoked za– can represent a construal of excess with intransitive perfective verbs, being extended from the sense of going beyond a boundary z– implies following a path and then veering off in another direction (Dickey 2006, 2009, ms.; Przybylska 2001, 2006; Piernikarski 1975; Śmiech 1986; Tabakowska 2003a)

17 The meaning of Perfective prefixed forms of myśleć domyślić się guess sth– focus on the end point and result; intensive-resultative verb (Dickey 2009) namyślić się make up ones mind– focus on cumulative nature process, and goal attainement obmyślić think about– the mental process has a circular nature, which means that the object of thinking is considered from many different perspectives pomyśleć think sth– beginning of an action but no end or result, focus on process; A prefix overlaps with the meaning of a source verb enough to produce a compound verb whose meaning is identical to that of the impf source verb save for aspect (Dickey 2006: 12) przemyśleć think over/through– implies the in-depth nature of the mental activity; also points at its completeness and duration

18 The meaning of Perfective prefixed forms of myśleć ctnd. rozmyślić się change ones mind– an observed change in the subjects mental state - between the normal process of the mental activity represented by the unprefixed form into the changed mental state represented by the prefixed one; the reflexive pronoun emphasizes the internal mental change of the subject, which may also bring about a change in the subjects behaviour frequently conceived of by observers as a negative one (Przybylska 2001: 279-280, Tabakowska 2003b) umyślić coś set ones mind on sth, decide- the mental process involves selection of one entity from a collection; the subject of the process thus focuses his/her attention on the selected entity, with the mental activity not being entirely conscious and goal-oriented wymyślić come up with– refers to a mental activity as a result of which one or more ideas emerge from ones mind; completeness of the process, which is conscious and goal-oriented; punctual in nature zamyślić się fall into deep thought– an absorbtive verb, as it construes a continuous process whose subject, by becoming deeply engrossed in the activity, loses control over it; the mental activity occurs independently of the subjects will, some adverse consequences may be expected (Dickey ms.) zmyślić make up sth, think sth up- the subject involved in the mental activity suddenly strays from the normal train of thought and produces an unexpected idea (deviant result – a false proposition)

19 Prefix/Aspect frequencies; PWN Corpus Ja to uzupełnię PrefixImperfPerfTotal do-542350892 na-593291 ob-4447101 po-0998 prze-28225253 roz-18064244 u-026 wy-26910571326 za-31185 z-332558

20 Degrees of grammaticalization

21 Most grammaticalized aspectual pairs with myśleć: myśleć (IMPF):pomyśleć think sth (P), Less grammaticalized aspectual pairs with suffixal derivation: przemyśleć (P):przemyśliwać (IMPF) think through; wymyślić (P):wymyślać (IMPF) come up with sth; domyślić się (P):domyślać się (IMPF) guess; namyślić się (P):namyślać się (IMPF) make up ones mind; obmyślić (P):obmyślać (IMPF) think about; zamyślić się fall into deep thought : zamyślać się; rozmyślić się change ones mind: rozmyślać (IMPF) cogitate; umyślić decide; Least grammaticalized affixed forms: zmyślić : zmyślać think up, make up sth

22 Conclusions po- most grammaticalized: little semantic value; grammatical – aspectual value added; most frequent in the Perfective, most bound in form prze- na-, wy-, do-, ob-, u-, roz- add both semantic and grammatical value z- adds grammatical value, but most importantly changes the semantic value

23 References Bybee, Joan L., William Pagliuca and Revere D. Perkins. 1991. Back to the future, in: Elizabeth C. Traugott and Bernd Heine (eds.), Approaches to grammaticalization. Vol. 2, Focus on types of grammatical markers. Amsterdam: Benjamins, 59-90. Cockiewicz, Wacław. 1992. Aspekt na tle systemu słowotwórczego polskiego czasownika... Kraków: Uniwersytet Jagielloński. Comrie, Bernard. 1976. Aspect. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Danielewiczowa, Magdalena. 2002. Wiedza i niewiedza: Studium polskich czasowników epistemicznych. [Knowing and Not Knowing: A study of Polish epistemic predicates.] Warszawa: Katedra Lingwistyki Formalnej UW. Dickey, Stephen M. 2000. Parameters of Slavic aspect: A cognitive approach. Stanford: CSLI. Dickey, Stephen M. 2006. Aspectual pairs, goal orientation, and po- delimitatives in Russian. Glossos 7. ( (date of access: 9th Nov. 2009). Dickey, Stephen M. 2009. Subjectification and the East-West aspect division. (Paper presented at the 9th Slavic Cognitive Linguistics Conference, 16th Oct. 2009.). Dickey, Stephen M. (manuscript). Subjectification and the Russian perfective. Dickey, Stephen M. and Julie Hutcheson. 2003. Delimitative verbs in Russian, Czech and Slavic, in: Robert A. Maguire and Alan Timberlake (eds.), American contributions to the Thirteenth International Congress of Slavists. Columbus: Ohio Slavica, 23-36. ( 20Delimitatives.pdf) (date of access: 9th Nov. 2009) 20Delimitatives.pdf

24 References Doroszewski, Witold (ed.). 2005. Słownik poprawnej polszczyzny. Warszawa: PWN. Hopper, Paul. 1991. On some principles of grammaticalization, in: Bernd Heine and Elizabeth C. Traugott (eds.). Approaches to grammaticalization. Vol. 1. Focus on theoretical and methodological issues. Amsterdam: John Bejamins, 17-35. Janda, Laura. 2004. A metaphor for aspect in Slavic. Cognitive Linguistics 15/4: 471-427. Janda, Laura. 2007. What makes Russian bi-aspectual verbs special?, in: Dagmar Divjak and Agata Kochańska (eds.). Cognitive paths into the Slavic domain. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Kochańska, Agata. 2007. Conflicting epistemic meanings of the Polish aspectual variants in past and fut ure uses: Are they a vagary of grammar?, in: Dagmar Divjak and Agata Kochańska (eds.). Cognitive paths into the Slavic domain. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 149-180. Langacker, Ronald. 1991. Foundations of cognitive grammar: Descriptive application. Vol. 2. Stanford: Stanford University Press. Langacker, Ronald. 1999. Grammar and conceptualization. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Meillet, Antoine. [1912] 1948. Lèvolution des forms grammaticales, in: Antoine Meillet (ed.) Linguistique historique at linguistique gènèrale. Paris: Champion, 130-148. Pasich-Piasecka, Agnieszka. 1993. Polysemy of the Polish verbal prefix prze-, in: Elżbieta Górska (ed.), Images from the cognitive scene. Kraków: Universitas.

25 References Piernikarski, Cezary. 1975. Czasowniki z prefiksem po- w języku polskim i czeskim: Na tle rodzajów akcji w językach słowiańskich. [Verbs with the po- prefix in Polish and Czech: In the background of Aktionsarten in Slavic languages]. Warszawa: PWN. Przybylska, Renata. 2001. Struktura schematyczno-wyobrażeniowa prefiksu czasownikowego roz- [Image-schematic structure of the verbal prefix roz-] Polonica 21: 269-286. Przybylska, Renata. 2006. Schematy wyobrażeniowe a semantyka polskich prefiksów czasownikowych do-, od-, prze-, roz-, u-. [Image schemata and semantics of Polish verb prefixes do-, od-, prze-, roz-, u-]. Kraków: Universitas. Śmiech, Witold. 1986. Derywacja prefiksalna czasowników polskich. [Prefix Derivation of Polish Verbs]. Wrocław: Ossolineum. Tabakowska, Elżbieta. 2003a. Space and time in Polish: The preposition za and the verbal prefix za-. In H. Cuyckens, T. Berg, R. Dirven & K.-U. Panther (eds.), Motivation in Language. Studies in Honor of Günter Radden, 153-177. Amsterdam / Philadelphia: John Benjamins. Tabakowska, Elżbieta. 2003b. The notorious Polish reflexive pronouns: A plea for Middle Voice. Glossos 4. (, (date of access: 9th Nov. 2008) Traugott, Elizabeth C. and Bernd Heine. 1991. Introduction, in: Elizabeth C. Traugott and Bernd Heine (eds.), Approaches to grammaticalization. Vol. 2, Focus on types of grammatical markers. Amsterdam: Benjamins, 1-14.

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