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Antiglobulin Test.

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Presentation on theme: "Antiglobulin Test."— Presentation transcript:

1 Antiglobulin Test

2 Teaching Aims To understand the principle of AGT
To learn the techniques of AGT To know about the AHG reagent

3 Antihuman Globulin Antihuman: antibodies against human antigens
Globulin: all antibody molecules are globulins Antihuman Globulin is antibody directed against the Fc portion of human antibodies and/or complement components. Antihuman means antibodies which are directed against human antigens. AHG is an antibody directed against Fc portion of human antibodies such as IgG and or complement

4 Anti-globulin Test Introduction by Coombs in 1945
Detects incomplete antibodies Principle of AGT Antibodies and complement components are globulins. Animals injected with human globulins produce anti-human globulin (AHG). AHG forms bridges between antibody coated red cells. AHG test was introduced by Coombs, Mourant and Race in 1945 to detect incomplete antibodies. Incomplete antibodies such as IgG do not cause agglutination in saline phase. They need potentiators such as AHG to cause agglutination of sensitized red cells.

5 Antihuman Globulin Reagents
Polyspecific Contains both, anti-IgG and anti-C3d (complement) Monospecific Contains only one specificity, either anti-IgG or anti-C3d

6 Preparation of AHG reagent
Human sera is injected into the animals such as Rabbit which will produce anti-human globulin. This anti-human globulin is polyclonal in nature as it contains antibody to human IgG and Complement,

7 Direct Antiglobulin Test
Detects in vivo sensitization of red cells Y Y Y Patient’s RBCs Y = Y Y Y + In DAT, patients red cells are already coated in vivo with immunoglobulins or complement due to disease process. On addition of AHG, these sensitized red cells are agglutinated. Y Y Coombs Reagent (Antiglobulin)

8 Method of DAT Wash test red cells 6 times with saline
Decant supernatant saline from the last wash Make 5% suspension of washed red cells Add one drop of 5% washed cells to a labeled tube Add one drop of AHG reagent Mix well and centrifuge at 1000 RPM x 1 min Note the results

9 Applications of DAT Diagnosis of HDN in newborn
Diagnosis of autoimmune hemolytic anemia Diagnosis of drug induced immune hemolytic anemia Investigation of hemolytic transfusion reaction

10 Indirect Antiglobulin Test
Detects free antibodies in the serum Y Patient’s Serum Pooled O RhD + RBCs + = Step 1 Step 2 IAT detected free antibodies in the serum of the patient. Normal pooled “O” red cells are incubated with serum to cause sensitization of red cells in vitro. On addition of AHG, there in vitro sensitized red cells get agglutinated. Y Y Y Y + = Y Y Y Y Y Y Coombs Reagent (Antiglobulin) Y Y

11 Method of IAT Add 2 drop of test serum to a test tube
Add 1 drop of 5% suspension of pooled O + red cells Incubate at 37oC for 60 minutes Wash the red cells 6 times with normal saline Add 1 drop of AHG reagent to red cell button Look for agglutination Negative results should be confirmed by adding 1 drop of check cells

12 Applications of IAT Detection and identification of unexpected antibodies in the serum Cross matching Typing of minor red cell antigens such as Duffy, Kell, Kidd Detection of weak D (Du test) Titration of antibodies Anti-D in maternal serum in HDN Weak D is a quantitative defect in which reduced number of D antigens are present on red cell membrane, while partial D is a qualitative defect. In partial D, some of the epitopes in D antigen are missing.

13 Factors affecting AGT Temperature - 37oC Ratio of serum to cells – 2:1
Incubation time- 60 min Reaction medium –Saline/ LISS Washing of cells – 3 to 6 times Addition of AHG reagent – remember to add Centrifugation for results – speed & time Quality of AHG reagent – QC of reagent

14 Sources of errors: false negative results in AGT
Inadequate washing of red cells. Test is interrupted or delayed. Problems with AHG reagent Bacterial contamination of reagent Improper storage. Failure to add AHG reagent. Decreased reactivity of AHG reagent.

15 Sources of errors: false positive results in AGT
Autoagglutination or polyagglutination of red blood cells. Improper washing of glassware. Over centrifugation. Presence of other antibodies in the AHG reagent. Contaminated reagents Saline contaminated by heavy metals or colloidal silica.

16 Preparation of Check Cells
Perform doubling dilution of commercially available monoclonal anti-D (IgG) Select the highest dilution which gives +2 reaction with ORhD positive red cells For eg. For dilution of 1:64, add 630 ul of NS to 10ul of undiluted anti-D Take one volume of diluted anti-D to which add equal vol of pooled O RhD positive red cells Incubate at 37C for 45 min Wash 3 times with NS Add 1 drop of AHG to 1 drop of 5% suspension of washed red cells Check cells can be stored in Alsever’s solution for 1 week at 4C

17 Validation of negative AGT
Add IgG sensitized red cells (check cells) to negative coombs test Agglutination present Agglutination absent Valid Test Invalid test

18 Points to remember……. Even 10 mL’s of AHG can be neutralized by a tiny amount of free serum protein. A technologist can forget to add AHG to a test tube. A couple of drops of residual saline can dilute the AHG reagent below detectable levels. Normally people do NOT produce unexpected antibodies. Therefore the test should normally be negative.

19 What are reagent red cell panels?
Red cell suspensions used in tests employing the principles of hemagglutination and hemolysis for the detection and identification of blood group antibodies. Commercial Sources Regular donors In-house Staff members

20 Applications of Reagent Red Cells
Reverse ABO grouping Antibody screening Antibody identification Antibody titration Allogenic adsorption Control of AHG technique

21 Reagent cells for antibody screen of donors
Pooled reagent screening cells used only for testing samples from blood donors Group O red cells naturally occurring anti-A or anti-B do not interfere with detection of unexpected antibodies As a minimum the following antigens should be expressed: D; C; c; E; e; K. Reagent red cells selected for donor screening are different from reagent cells required for patient antibody screening. Red cells for blood donor antibody screening are pooled group O red cells. They should express a minimum of all Rh antigens and K.

22 Reagent cells for antibody screen of patients
Un-pooled cells from a minimum of two donors must be used One reagent red cell should be R2R2; other R1R1. Must express K;k;Fya;Fyb;Jka;Jkb;S;s;M;N;P1;Lea and Leb. Homozygous expression of some of these antigens is essential for reliable detection of weak antibodies.   Reagent red cells for patient antibody screening are generally 2 cell panels or 3 cell panels. They should express all clinically significant antigens in homozygos state to pick up all clinically significant antibodies in the serum of the patient.

23 Antibody Screening An anti-gram listing the antigen makeup of each cell provided with each lot of screening cells issued from a manufacture. Lot number on the screening cells must match with the lot number printed on the anti-gram because antigen make up will vary with each lot. The “ideal” screening cells have red cells with homozygous expression of as many antigens as possible.

24 Three cell screening panel
Rh Kell Duffy Kidd Lewis P MNS D C E c e K k Fy a Fyb Jka Jkb Lea Leb p M N S s I + II III It is important that reagent red cells in the panel should be in the homozygous state in order to detect weak reacting antibodies. All circled antigens are in homozygous state

25 Antibody Screening in Test Tubes
Take 3 test tubes and mark them as 1,2 and 3 Add 2 drop test serum in all tubes Add 1 drop of screening cells in respective tubes Add 2 drops of LISS to test tubes Incubate at 37ºC for 15 min- 30 min Centrifuge at 1000 rpm for 1 min. Wash cells 3 times with saline Add 2 drops of AHG reagent Centrifuge at 1000 rpm for 1 min. Examine for Agglutination

26 Antibody identification
What is the importance of identification of antibody? To determine specificity of antibody To provide antigen negative blood for transfusion To determine clinical significance of antibody To investigate hemolytic disease of newborn To investigate transfusion reactions

27 Potentiators Used in antibody screening and identification to enhance antigen-antibody reaction Low-ionic strength solution (LISS) Bovine serum albumin (BSA) Polyethylene glycol (PEG) Proteolytic enzymes Papain Ficin Bromelin

28 Potentiators in Red Cell Serology
Action Detects 22% albumin Reduces zeta potential between red cells IgG antibodies LISS Low ionic strength environment increases antibody uptake by red cells Enzymes Destroys some red cell antigens and enhances other red cell antigens Destroys Fya, Fyb, MNS. Enhances Rh, Kidd, P, Lewis antibodies PEG Macromolecules reduce distance between two red cells

29 Learning Outcomes You will now understand the principal of AGT
You will be able to carry out AGT You must have known about the reagent in use

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