3Why Do People Like Being a Part of a Group? Security – to feel stronger and supportedStatus – to be viewed by others more favorablySelf-esteem – to feel better about themselvesAffiliation – to fulfill social needsGoal Achievement – pooling individualtalents may be necessary to meet a goal
4Comparing Work Groups & Work Teams Q. When you hear the words “Group” and “Team”, what differences come to mind?
5Comparing Work Groups & Work Teams Work Group – A group that interacts primarily for sharing information and making decisions to help each member perform within their area of responsibilityWork Team - a group whose members influence one another toward accomplishment of objectives and whose combined efforts is greater than the sum of individual efforts (synergy).
6Comparing Work Groups & Work Teams A Leader’s goal must be to turn their group into a team!
7Characteristics of Teams All teams are groups but not all groups are teams.It takes time for members to learn how to work together – there are stages.Teams benefit from synergyIn teams, there is greater intensity with which team members work togetherIn teams, there is a presence of at least one specific, overriding team goal or objective
9Stages of Team Development Forming – Establishing expectations, identifying skills & personalities, and defining authorityStorming – Conflict emerges due to role establishment and challenging each otherNorming – agreeing on roles, rules, and behaviorPerforming – Focusing on solving problems and meeting challenges. Until working through steps 1-3, a team can’t get in a position to succeedAdjourning – Job is finished & team disbands
10Team Diversity Advantages & Disadvantages Team A – Team members are very similar in terms of age, race, and sexTeam B – Team members are widely diverse in terms of age, race, and sexQ. Which team would perform better in the near term?Q. Which team would perform better in the long term?
11Teamwork in the U.S.Q. Growing up, was more importance placed for you on individual performance or teamwork?Q. In what ways is teamwork taught, encouraged, or rewarded in the U.S.?
12Characteristics of Effective Teams Q. What are some Characteristics of Effective Teams?
13Characteristics of Effective Teams Trust among members!Compensation and recognition rewards team outputIndividuals have confidence in all team membersTask conflicts rather than interpersonal conflictsLoafing is self-regulated and not toleratedGenerally have less than 10 members & odd numbersFeel supported and appreciated by upper management and secure about the group’s future
14Characteristics of Effective Teams Individuals all prefer to be part of a teamDiversity will = greater effectiveness in the long runShared ResponsibilityDiversity of experience and abilitiesMix of Technical/Interpersonal/Conceptual skillsPositive personality traits across all team membersIndividuals cooperate fully, but are still competitiveWork is satisfying and challenging
15Characteristics of Effective Teams Roles are assigned and everyone accepts their roleIndividuals are flexible and cross-trainableGood communication—from management to the team as well as within the teamLeader is involved in team events and demonstrates interest in team progress and functioningConsciously avoid Groupthink and Groupshift
16Groupthink and Groupshift * As a member of a group, we may feel so compelled or pressured to reach agreement, that we hold back on ideas which would benefit the group (and may ultimately be agreed upon).
17Groupthink and Groupshift * Usually the shift is towards riskiness, as in case of failure, blame can be spread around!
19Enhancing Group Cohesiveness Ways to increase group cohesiveness:Make the group smaller.Increase time members spend together.Stimulate competition with other groups.Give rewards to the group, not just individuals.Physically isolate the group.
20Teams vs. Individual Decision Making Q. What are the advantages of Team decision making vs. Individual decision making?Q. What are the disadvantages?
21Team Decision Making Advantages vs. Individual Decision Making More complete informationIncreased diversity of viewsIncreased acceptance of solutionsGenerally results in higher quality of decisionsDisadvantages vs. Individual Decision MakingMore time consumingPressure to conform can lead to suboptimal decisionsDomination by one or a few membersPotential for Groupthink and Groupshift
22Group Size Advantage of small groups Interact more with each other and easier to coordinate their effortsMore motivated, satisfied, and committedEasier to share informationBetter able to see the importance of their personal contributions
23Group Size Advantages of large groups More resources at their disposal to achieve group goalsEnables managers to obtain division of labor advantagesDisadvantages of large groupsProblem of communication and coordinationLower level of motivationMembers might not think their efforts are really needed
24Group RolesGroup Roles - The set of behaviors and tasks that a group member is expected to perform because of his or her position in the group.In cross-functional teams, members are expected to perform roles in their specialty.Managers should clearly describe expected roles to group members when they are assigned to the group.Self-managed teams may assign the roles to members themselves.
25Group LeadershipEffective leadership is a key ingredient in high performing groups, teams, and organizations.Formal groups created by an organization have a leader appointed by the organization.Informal groups that evolve independently in an organization have an informal leader recognized by the group.
26Group NormsGroup Norms - Shared guidelines or rules for behavior that most group members followManagers should encourage members to develop norms that contribute to group performance and the attainment of group goals
27Conformity and Deviance Members conform to norms to obtain rewards, imitate respected members, and because they feel the behavior is right.When a member deviates, other members will try to make them conform, expel the member, or change the group norms to accommodate them (evolve as a group)Conformity and deviance must be balanced for high performance from the group.Conformity creates harmony and productivity, while Deviance allows for new ideas in the group.
28Balancing Conformity and Deviance in Groups Figure 15.5