Why Do People Like Being a Part of a Group? Security – to feel stronger and supported Status – to be viewed by others more favorably Self-esteem – to feel better about themselves Affiliation – to fulfill social needs Goal Achievement – pooling individual talents may be necessary to meet a goal
Comparing Work Groups & Work Teams Q. When you hear the words “Group” and “Team”, what differences come to mind?
Comparing Work Groups & Work Teams Work Group – A group that interacts primarily for sharing information and making decisions to help each member perform within their area of responsibility Work Team - a group whose members influence one another toward accomplishment of objectives and whose combined efforts is greater than the sum of individual efforts (synergy).
Comparing Work Groups & Work Teams A Leader’s goal must be to turn their group into a team!
15-7 Characteristics of Teams All teams are groups but not all groups are teams. It takes time for members to learn how to work together – there are stages. Teams benefit from synergy In teams, there is greater intensity with which team members work together In teams, there is a presence of at least one specific, overriding team goal or objective
15-8 The Stages of Group Development Figure 15.4
Stages of Team Development 1.Forming – Establishing expectations, identifying skills & personalities, and defining authority 2.Storming – Conflict emerges due to role establishment and challenging each other 3.Norming – agreeing on roles, rules, and behavior 4.Performing – Focusing on solving problems and meeting challenges. Until working through steps 1-3, a team can’t get in a position to succeed 5.Adjourning – Job is finished & team disbands
Team Diversity Advantages & Disadvantages Team A – Team members are very similar in terms of age, race, and sex Team B – Team members are widely diverse in terms of age, race, and sex Q. Which team would perform better in the near term? Q. Which team would perform better in the long term?
Teamwork in the U.S. Q. Growing up, was more importance placed for you on individual performance or teamwork? Q. In what ways is teamwork taught, encouraged, or rewarded in the U.S.?
Characteristics of Effective Teams Q. What are some Characteristics of Effective Teams?
Characteristics of Effective Teams Trust among members! Compensation and recognition rewards team output Individuals have confidence in all team members Task conflicts rather than interpersonal conflicts Loafing is self-regulated and not tolerated Generally have less than 10 members & odd numbers Feel supported and appreciated by upper management and secure about the group’s future
Characteristics of Effective Teams Individuals all prefer to be part of a team Diversity will = greater effectiveness in the long run Shared Responsibility Diversity of experience and abilities Mix of Technical/Interpersonal/Conceptual skills Positive personality traits across all team members Individuals cooperate fully, but are still competitive Work is satisfying and challenging
Characteristics of Effective Teams Roles are assigned and everyone accepts their role Individuals are flexible and cross-trainable Good communication—from management to the team as well as within the team Leader is involved in team events and demonstrates interest in team progress and functioning Consciously avoid Groupthink and Groupshift
Groupthink and Groupshift * As a member of a group, we may feel so compelled or pressured to reach agreement, that we hold back on ideas which would benefit the group (and may ultimately be agreed upon).
Groupthink and Groupshift * Usually the shift is towards riskiness, as in case of failure, blame can be spread around!
Enhancing Group Cohesiveness Ways to increase group cohesiveness: 1.Make the group smaller. 2.Increase time members spend together. 3.Stimulate competition with other groups. 4.Give rewards to the group, not just individuals. 5.Physically isolate the group. Ways to increase group cohesiveness: 1.Make the group smaller. 2.Increase time members spend together. 3.Stimulate competition with other groups. 4.Give rewards to the group, not just individuals. 5.Physically isolate the group.
Teams vs. Individual Decision Making Q. What are the advantages of Team decision making vs. Individual decision making? Q. What are the disadvantages?
Team Decision Making Advantages vs. Individual Decision Making –More complete information –Increased diversity of views –Increased acceptance of solutions –Generally results in higher quality of decisions Disadvantages vs. Individual Decision Making –More time consuming –Pressure to conform can lead to suboptimal decisions –Domination by one or a few members –Potential for Groupthink and Groupshift
15-22 Group Size Advantage of small groups –Interact more with each other and easier to coordinate their efforts –More motivated, satisfied, and committed –Easier to share information –Better able to see the importance of their personal contributions
15-23 Group Size Advantages of large groups More resources at their disposal to achieve group goals Enables managers to obtain division of labor advantages Disadvantages of large groups Problem of communication and coordination Lower level of motivation Members might not think their efforts are really needed
15-24 Group Roles Group Roles - The set of behaviors and tasks that a group member is expected to perform because of his or her position in the group. In cross-functional teams, members are expected to perform roles in their specialty. Managers should clearly describe expected roles to group members when they are assigned to the group. Self-managed teams may assign the roles to members themselves.
15-25 Group Leadership Effective leadership is a key ingredient in high performing groups, teams, and organizations. Formal groups created by an organization have a leader appointed by the organization. Informal groups that evolve independently in an organization have an informal leader recognized by the group.
15-26 Group Norms Group Norms - Shared guidelines or rules for behavior that most group members follow –Managers should encourage members to develop norms that contribute to group performance and the attainment of group goals
15-27 Conformity and Deviance Members conform to norms to obtain rewards, imitate respected members, and because they feel the behavior is right. When a member deviates, other members will try to make them conform, expel the member, or change the group norms to accommodate them (evolve as a group) Conformity and deviance must be balanced for high performance from the group. Conformity creates harmony and productivity, while Deviance allows for new ideas in the group.
15-28 Figure 15.5 Balancing Conformity and Deviance in Groups