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ENCE 717 BRIDGE ENGINEERING

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1 ENCE 717 BRIDGE ENGINEERING
C. C. Fu, Ph.D., P.E. The BEST Center University of Maryland September 2003

2 Role of Bridge Engineer
The bridge engineer is often involved with several or all aspects of bridge planning, design, and management The bridge engineer works closely with other civil engineers who are in charge of the roadway design and alignment. After the alignment is determined, the bridge engineer often controls the bridge type, aesthetics, and technical details The bridge engineer is often charged with reviewing shop drawing and often construction details The owner, who is often a department of transportation or other public agency, is charged with the management of the bridge, either doing the work in-house or hiring consultants

3 Role of Bridge Engineer (cont.)
Bridge management includes routine inspections, repair, rehabilitation and retrofits or even replacement (4R) as necessary In summary, the bridge engineer has significant control over the design, construction, and maintenance processes. In return, bridge engineer has significant responsibility for public safety and resources In short, the bridge is (or interface closely with) the planner, architect, designer, constructor, and facility manager.

4 Bridge Structure Selection
Environmental Assessment Consideration (Appendix A: FHWA Order) Historic: consulting with the State Historic Preservation Officer Construction Impact Floor Plain (stream or river subject to overflow) Wetlands “Landmark”

5 Bridge Structure Selection (cont.)
Design Philosophy Safety Serviceability (including durability of materials) Inspectability Maintainability Rideability Deformations (Deflections) Constructability Economy (Appendix B: Economic Evaluation; Appendix C: Caltran Estimate) Bridge Aesthetics

6 Bridge Structure Selection (cont.)
Life Costs vs. First Cost “Ideal” Life-Cycle Costs LCC = DC + BC + OC + LP + RC where DC = Design Costs BC = Estimated Bid Costs OC = Estimated Maintenance/Operating Costs LP = Cost accrued by the traveling public due to delays and detours required for maintenance and/or rehabilitation RC = Rehabilitation/Replacement Construction Costs

7 Bridge Structure Selection (cont.)
Parameters in selecting the Type, Size and Location (TS&L) Span Length (pier location, site constraints, best combination of super- and sub-structure costs) Accessibility to the site (weight limit, on-site fabrication) Estimated Costs Beam Spacing Material Availability (local supplier?) Time available for design and construction (urban area time constraints) Geometry – curved or straight? Deck Superstructures (Appendix D: Common Deck Superstructures)

8 Basic Types of Spans The three basic types of spans are shown below. Any of these spans may be constructed using beams, girders or trusses. Arch bridges are either simple or continuous (hinged). A cantilever bridge may also include a suspended span.

9 Type of Bridges (Appendix E: Span Ranges for Various Bridge Types;
Appendix F: Penn DOT’s Selection of Bridge Types; Appendix G: Caltran’s Types of Structures) Types of Bridges: A. Main Structure Coincides with the Deck Line B. Main Structure Below the Deck Line C. Main Structure Above the Deck Line

10 Type of Bridges A. Main Structure Coincides with the Deck Line
Slab (solid and voided) T-beam (cast-in-place) I-beam (precast or prestressed) Wide-flange beam (composite and noncomposite) Concrete box (cast-in-place and segmental, prestressed) Steel Box (orthotropic deck) Steel plate girder (straight and haunched)

11 Beam/Girder Bridge Simple deck beam bridges are usually metal or reinforced concrete. Other beam and girder types are constructed of metal. The end section of the two deck configuration shows the cross-bracing commonly used between beams. The pony end section shows knee braces which prevent deflection where the girders and deck meet.

12 Girder Bridge Example

13 Beam/Girder Bridge (cont.)
One method of increasing a girder's load capacity while minimizing its web depth is to add haunches at the supported ends. Usually the center section is a standard shape with parallel flanges; curved or angled flanged ends are riveted or bolted using splice plates. Because of the restrictions incurred in transporting large beams to the construction site, shorter, more manageable lengths are often joined on-site using splice plates.

14 Beam/Girder Bridge (cont.)
Orthotropic beams are modular shapes which resist stress in multiple directions at once. They vary in cross-section and may be open or closed shapes.

15 Type of Bridges B. Main Structure Below the Deck Line Masonry arch
Concrete arch Steel truss-arch Steel deck truss Rigid frame Inclined leg frame Arch – O’Connor

16 Type of Bridges C. Main Structure Above the Deck Line Suspension
Cable-stayed Through-truss Suspension – O’Connor Truss

17 Rigid Frame Bridge Many modern bridges use new designs developed using computer stress analysis. The rigid frame type has superstructure and substructure which are integrated. Commonly, the legs or the intersection of the leg and deck are a single piece which is riveted to other sections.

18 Rigid Frame Bridge (cont.)

19 Arch Bridge There are several ways to classify arch bridges. The placement of the deck in relation to the superstructure provides the descriptive terms used in all bridges: deck, pony, and through.

20 Arch Bridge (cont.) Another method of classification is found in the configuration of the arch. Examples of solid-ribbed, brace-ribbed (trussed arch) and spandrel-braced arches are shown. A solid-ribbed arch is commonly constructed using curved girder sections. A brace-ribbed arch has a curved through truss rising above the deck. A spandrel-braced arch or open spandrel deck arch carries the deck on top of the arch.

21 Tied Arch Bridge The double-decked Fremont Bridge, Portland, Orgeon
The tied arch span: 902 feet Built: 1973

22 Arch Bridge (cont.) Some metal bridges which appear to be open spandrel deck arch are, in fact, cantilever; these rely on diagonal bracing. A true arch bridge relies on vertical members to transmit the load which is carried by the arch.

23 Deck Arch Truss New River Gorge bridge, Fayetteville, WV
Main span length: 1700 ft., Built: 1978

24 Arch Bridge (cont.) The tied arch (bowstring) type is commonly used for suspension bridges; the arch may be trussed or solid. The trusses which comprise the arch will vary in configuration, but commonly use Pratt or Warren webbing. While a typical arch bridge passes its load to bearings at its abutment; a tied arch resists spreading (drift) at its bearings by using the deck as a tie piece.

25 Arch Bridge (cont.) Masonry bridges, constructed in stone and concrete, may have open or closed spandrels A closed spandrel is usually filled with rubble and faced with dressed stone or concrete. Occasionally, reinforced concrete is used in building pony arch types.

26 Arch – by O’Connor The arch form is intended to reduce bending moments (and hence tensile stress) in the superstructure and should be economical in material. This efficiency is achieved by providing horizontal reactions to the arch rib. If these are external reactions, they can be supplied at reasonable cost only if the site is suitable. The most suitable site for this form of structure is a valley, with the arch foundations located on dry rock slopes. The conventional curved arch rib may have high fabrication and erection costs.

27 Arch – by O’Connor (cont.)
The erection problem varies with the type of structure, being easiest for the cantilever arch and possible most difficult for the tied arch. The difficulty with the latter arises from the fact that the horizontal reactions are not available until the deck is completed. The arch is predominantly a compression structure. For example, the open spandrel arch with the rib below deck consists of deck, spandrel columns, and arch rib. The last two are compression members. The design must include accurate estimates of buckling behavior and should be detailed so as to avoid excessive reductions in allowable stress. The classic arch form tends to favor concrete as a construction material.

28 Arch – by O’Connor (cont.)
The arch rib is usually shaped to take dead load without bending moments. This load is then called the form load. If the form load is large, the live load becomes essentially a small disturbance applied to a compressed member. Under these conditions, the normal first-order elastic theory is inadequate the errs on the unsafe side. Some form of deflection theory must be used for analysis. The effects of initial imperfections in the arch shape may become significant.

29 Arch – by O’Connor (cont.)
The conventional arch has two moment-resistant components – the deck and the arch rib. Undesirable and unanticipated distributions of moment may occur, particularly in regions where the spandrel columns are short, normally near the crown of the arch, which may be avoided by careful detailing; for example, by using pin-ended columns.

30 Arch – by O’Connor (cont.)
The structure of most arches encroaches on the space bounded by the abutments and the deck. This encroachment may restrict clearance for passage beneath and may involve the risk of collision with the arch rib. Aesthetically, the arch can be the most successful of all bridge types. It appears that through experience of familiarity, the average person regards the arch form as understandable and expressive. The curved shape is almost always pleasing.

31 Truss Bridge Examples of the three common travel surface configurations are shown in the Truss type drawings below. In a Deck configuration, traffic travels on top of the main structure; in a Pony configuration, traffic travels between parallel superstructures which are not cross-braced at the top; in a Through configuration, traffic travels through the superstructure (usually a truss) which is cross-braced above and below the traffic.

32 Truss Bridge - Simple Types
A truss is a structure made of many smaller parts. Once constructed of wooden timbers, and later including iron tension members, most truss bridges are built of metal. Types of truss bridges are also identified by the terms deck, pony and through which describe the placement of the travel surface in relation to the superstructure (see drawings above). The king post truss is the simplest type; the queen post truss adds a horizontal top chord to achieve a longer span, but the center panel tends to be less rigid due to its lack of diagonal bracing.

33 Covered Truss Bridge Covered bridges are typically wooden truss structures. The enclosing roof protected the timbers from weathering and extended the life of the bridge. One of the more common methods used for achieving longer spans was the multiple kingpost truss. A simple, wooden, kingpost truss forms the center and panels are added symmetrically. With the use of iron in bridge construction, the Howe truss - - in its simplest form - - appears to be a type of multiple kingpost truss

34 King Post Truss Bridge A Multiple Kingpost -- Landis Mill Bridge, Lancaster County, PA Length: 53 ft., Width: 15 ft., Built: 1873

35 Queen Post Truss Bridge
A Queenpost Truss -- Mary Ann Pyle Bridge, Brandywine Conservancy, PA Length: 75 ft., Width: 15 ft., Built 1881

36 Covered Truss Bridge (cont.)
Stephen H. Long ( ) of the U.S. Army Topographical Engineers may be best known for comments he made after one of his missions to explore and map the United States as it expanded westward. While working for the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, he developed the X truss in 1830 with further improvements patented in 1835 and The wooden truss was also known as the Long truss and he is cited as the first American to use mathematical calculations in truss design.

37 Covered Truss Bridge (cont.)
Theodore Burr built a bridge spanning the Hudson River at Waterford, NY in By adding a arch segments to a multiple kingpost truss, the Burr arch truss was able to attain longer spans. His truss design, patented in 1817, is not a true arch as it relies on the interaction of the arch segments with the truss members to carry the load. There were many of this type in the Pittsburgh area and they continue to be one of the most common type of covered bridges. Many later covered bridge truss types used an added arch based on the success of the Burr truss.

38 Burr Arch Truss Bridge A Two-Span Burr Arch Bridge -- Pine Grove Bridge, Lancaster County, PA Length: 198 ft. Width: 15 ft. Built 1884

39 Covered Truss Bridge (cont.)
The Town lattice truss was patented in 1820 by Ithiel Town. The lattice is constructed of planks rather than the heavy timbers required in kingpost and queenpost designs. It was easy to construct, if tedious. Reportedly, Mr. Town licensed his design at one dollar per foot - - or two dollars per foot for those found not under license. The second Ft. Wayne railroad bridge over the Allegheny River was an unusual instance of a Town lattice constructed in iron.

40 Town Lattice Truss Bridge
A Town or Lattice Truss -- Cabin Run Bridge in Bucks County Length: 82 ft., Width: 15 ft., Built 1871

41 Covered Truss Bridge (cont.)
Herman Haupt designed and patented his truss configuration in He was in engineering management for several railroads including the Pennsylvania Railroad (1848) and drafted as superintendent of military railroads for the Union Army during the Civil War. The Haupt truss concentrates much of its compressive forces through the end panels and onto the abutments.

42 Pratt Truss The Pratt truss is a very common type, but has many variations. Originally designed by Thomas and Caleb Pratt in 1844, the Pratt truss successfully made the transition from wood designs to metal. The basic identifying features are the diagonal web members which form a V-shape. The center section commonly has crossing diagonal members. Additional counter braces may be used and can make identification more difficult, however the Pratt and its variations are the most common type of all trusses.

43 Pratt Truss (cont.) Charles H. Parker modified the Pratt truss to create a "camelback" truss having a top chord which does not stay parallel with the bottom chord. This creates a lighter structure without losing strength; there is less dead load at the ends and more strength concentrated in the center. It is somewhat more complicated to build since the web members vary in length from one panel to the next.

44 Pratt Truss (cont.) When additional smaller members are added to a Pratt truss, the various subdivided types have been given names from the railroad companies which most commonly used each type, although both were developed by engineers of the Pennsylvania Railroad in the 1870s.

45 Whipple Truss The Whipple truss gained immediate popularity with the railroads as it was stronger and more rigid than the Pratt. It was less common for highway use, but a few wrought iron examples survive. They were usually built where the span required was longer than was practical with a Pratt truss. Further developments of the subdivided variations of the Pratt, including the Pennsylvania and Baltimore trusses, led to the decline of the Whipple truss.

46 Double Intersection Pratt (or Whipple) through truss bridge
Poffenberger Road Bridge, Frederick, MD, built c.1878

47 Warren Truss A Warren truss, patented by James Warren and Willoughby Monzoni of Great Britain in 1848, can be identified by the presence of many equilateral or isoceles triangles formed by the web members which connect the top and bottom chords. These triangles may also be further subdivided. Warren truss may also be found in covered bridge designs.

48 Howe Truss The other truss types shown are less common on modern bridges. A Howe truss at first appears similar to a Pratt truss, but the Howe diagonal web members are inclined toward the center of the span to form A-shapes. The vertical members are in tension while the diagonal members are in compression, exactly opposite the structure of a Pratt truss. Patented in 1840 by William Howe, this design was common on early railroads. The Howe truss was patented as an improvement to the Long truss which is discussed with covered bridge types.

49 Cantilever Truss A cantilever is a structural member which projects beyond its support and is supported at only one end. Cantilever bridges are constructed using trusses, beams, or girders. Employing the cantilever principles allows structures to achieve spans longer than simple spans of the same superstructure type. They may also include a suspended span which hangs between the ends of opposing cantilever arms.

50 Cantilever Truss (cont.)
Some bridges which appear to be arch type are, in fact, cantilever truss. These may be identified by the diagonal braces which are used in the open spandrel. A true arch bridge relies on vertical members to transfer the load to the arch. Pratt and Warren bracing are among the most commonly used truss types.

51 Cantilever Through Truss Bridge
Forth Bridge, Queensferry, Scotland Main sections: 5360 ft., Maximum span: 1710(2), 4 spans total, Built: 1890

52 Truss A bridge truss has two major structural advantages: (1) the primary member forces are axial loads; (2) the open web system permits the use of a greater overall depth than for an equivalent solid web girder. Both these factors lead to economy in material and a reduced dead weight. The increased depth also leads to reduced deflections, that is, a more rigid structure. These advantages are achieved at the expense of increased fabrication and maintenance costs.

53 Truss The conventional truss bridge is most likely to be economical for medium spans. Traditionally, it has been used for spans intermediate between the technique and materials have tended to increase the economical span of both steel and concrete girders. The cable-stayed girder bridge has become a competitor to the steel truss for the intermediate spans. These factors, all of which are related to the high fabrication cost of a truss, have tended to reduce the number of truss spans built in recent years. Nevertheless, economical solutions have been achieved for highway bridge spans in the range m. The largest highway bridge truss span presently in service is the 480-m main span of the Greater New Orleans cantilever bridge. This value is exceeded by the 550-m span Quebec Bridge and the 520-m span Firth of Forth Bridge, both railway bridges. The economical threshold for the railway truss bridge may be as low as 75 m due to the loads that are significantly heavier than highway loads.

54 Truss The truss has become almost the standard stiffening structure for the conventional suspension bridge, largely because of its acceptable aerodynamic behavior. The relative light weight of a truss bridge is an erection advantage. It may be assembled member by member using lifting equipment of small capacity. Alternatively, the number of field connections may be reduced by fabricating and erecting and trusses day by day, rather than one member at a time.

55 Truss As in all bridge structures, it is important to achieve a compatible relationship between the deck and the main structure. This relationship is best achieved by causing the deck to deck with the truss chords in taking axial loads. Alternatively, the deck may be isolated from the chords by a system of deck expansion joints. Compared with alternative solutions, the encroachment of a truss on the opening below is large if the deck is at the upper chord level, but is small if the traffic runs through the bridge, with the deck at the lower chord level. For railway overpasses carrying a railway above a road or another railway, the small construction depth of a through truss over the main span with a small construction depth, and approaches with the deck at upper chord level.

56 Truss A truss bridge rarely looks aesthetically pleasing. This poor appearance is due partly to the complexity of the elevation, but also results from the awkward member intersections that appear in any oblique view. In a large-span bridge, these factors may become unimportant because of the visual impact of the large scale. In bridges of moderate span, it seems best to provide a simple and regular structure. For this reason, the Warren truss usually looks better than other forms.

57 Suspension Bridge The longest bridges in the world are suspension bridges or their cousins, the cable-stayed bridge. The deck is hung from suspenders of wire rope, eyebars or other materials. Materials for the other parts also vary: piers may be steel or masonry; the deck may be made of girders or trussed.

58 Suspension Bridge (cont.)
Akashi Kaikyo Bridge(AKB) between Kobe and Awaji Island, Japan Total Length:3,911m Section Length: 960 m + 1,991 m m

59 Suspension – O’Connor The major element of the stiffened suspension bridge is a flexible cable, shaped and supported in such a way that it can transfer the major loads to the towers and anchorages by direct tension. This cable is commonly constructed from high strength wires, either case the allowable stresses are high, typically of the order of 600 MPa for parallel stands. The deck is hung from the cable by hangers constructed of high strength wire ropes in tension.

60 Suspension – by O’Connor (cont.)
This use of high strength steel in tension, primarily in the cables and secondarily in the hangers, leads to an economical structure, particularly if the self-weight becomes significant, as in the case of long spans. The economy of the main cable must be balanced against the cost of the associated anchorages and towers. The anchorage cost may be high in areas where the foundation material is poor. The main cable is stiffened either by a pair of stiffening trusses or by a system of girders at deck level.

61 Suspension – by O’Connor (cont.)
This stiffening system serves to (a) control aerodynamic movements and (b) limit local angle changes in the deck. It may be unnecessary in cases where the dead load is great. The complete structure can be erected without intermediate staging from the ground. The main structure is elegant and neatly expresses it function. The height of the main towers can be a disadvantage in some areas; for example, within the approach circuits for an airport.

62 Suspension – by O’Connor (cont.)
It is the only alternative for spans over 600 m, and it is generally regarded as competitive for spans down to 300 m. However, even shorter spans have been built, including some very attractive pedestrian bridges. Westbound (1973) Eastbound (1952) suspension (truss deck) (1600 ft.) ,truss (480 ft.) ,truss (600 ft.) ,truss (780 ft.)

63 Cable-stayed Bridge The cable-stayed bridge is becoming very popular. A great advantage of the cable-stayed bridge is that it is essentially made of cantilevers, and can be constructed by building out from the towers.

64 Cable-stayed Bridge (cont.)
Normandy Bridge on the river Seine, near Le Havre (France). Main span: 856-m, Total length: 2141-m, Built: 1995

65 Cable-stayed The use of high strength cables in tension leads to economy in material, weight, and cost. As compared with the stiffened suspension bridge, the cables are straight rather than curved. As a result, the stiffness is greater. It will be recalled that the nonlinearity of the stiffened suspension bridge results from changes in the cable curvature and the corresponding change in bending moment taken by the dead-load cable tension. The phenomenon cannot occur in an arrangement with straight cables.

66 Cable-stayed The cables are anchored to the deck and cause compressive forces in the deck. For economical design, the deck system must participate in carrying these forces. In a concrete structure, this axial force compresses the deck. All individual cables are shorter than the full length of the superstructure. They are normally constructed of individual wire ropes, supplied complete with end fittings, prestretched and not spun. The cable erection problem differs greatly from that in the conventional suspension bridge.

67 Cable-stayed There is great freedom of choice in selecting the structural arrangement. Compared with the stiffened suspension bridge, the cable-braced girder bridge tends to be less efficient in supporting dead load, but more efficient under live load. As a result, it is not likely to be economical on the longest spans. It is commonly claimed to be economical over the range m, but some designers would extend the upper bound as high as 800 m.

68 Cable-stayed The cables may arranged in a single plane, at the longitudinal centerline of the deck. This arrangement capitalizes on the torsion capacity inherent in a tubular girder system, and halves the number of shafts in the towers. It also simplifies the appearance of the structure, and avoids cable intersections when the bridge is viewed obliquely.

69 Cable-stayed It is desirable to provide jacking details capable of modifying the cable forces. These can be arranged at the cable anchorages or at the tower tops. They are necessary to adjust for relaxation in the cables, errors in the cable lengths, or variations in their elastic modulus. They may also be used to modify the stress distribution due to dead load – for example, by prestressing the main span upwards.

70 Cable-stayed The presence of the cables facilitates the erection of a cable-stayed girder bridge. Temporary backstays of this type have been common in the cantilever erection of girder bridges. Adjustment of the cables provides an effective control during erection. Aerodynamic instability has not been found to be a problem in structures erected to date. Radial Pattern Parallel Pattern

71 Cable-stayed The natural frequency of vibration differs from that of more conventional alternatives, such as the unbraced girder or the suspension bridge. In the case of the harp arrangement, the cables tends to balance a load on one side of the tower against a load on the other, causing a reduction in the dead-load moment in the deck and a possible reduction in the deck stiffness. However, the bridge may vibrate in a mode in which points at opposite ends of a cable have vertical movements in opposite senses. The contribution of the cables to the deck stiffness may be small, and this may lead to undesirable natural frequencies. The fan arrangements should be better in this regard.

72 What type of bridge is this?
New Woodraw Wilson Memorial Bridge


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