Presentation on theme: "HOW DO YOU DEFINE DRUG ABUSE AND DRUG MISUSE?"— Presentation transcript:
1 HOW DO YOU DEFINE DRUG ABUSE AND DRUG MISUSE? Drug abuse is a form of drug-taking behavior that results in some form of physical, mental, or social impairment.Drug misuse is a form of drug-taking behavior in which a prescription or nonprescription (over-the-counter) drug is used inappropriately.
2 ROUTES OF DRUG ADMINISTRATION Injection (intravenous, intramuscular, or subcutaneous injection)Inhalation (smoking)Oral administration (by mouth)Absorption through the skin or membranes (intranasal sniffing, sublingual absorption, rectal suppository, transdermal patch)
3 SUBSTANCE DEPENDENCE DSM-IV CRITERIA At least 3 out of the following must apply within the past year:ToleranceWithdrawalUnintentional overusePersistent desire or efforts to control drug usePreoccupation with the drugReduction or abandonment of important social, occupational, or recreational activities in order to engage in drug useContinued drug use despite major drug-related problemsSymptoms must have persisted for more than a month or occurred repeatedly over a longer period of time.
4 SUBSTANCE ABUSE DSM-IV CRITERIA At least one of the following must apply within the past year:Recurrent drug use resulting in a failure to fulfill major obligations at work, school, or homeRecurrent drug use in situations in which use is physically hazardousRecurrent drug-related legal problems, such as arrest for disorderly conduct or drug-related behaviorContinued drug use despite the knowledge of persistent social, occupational, psychological, or physical problems that would be caused or made more difficult by the use of the drugNote: The person must have never met the criteria for substance dependence for this particular drug.
5 ROUTES OF DRUG ADMINISTRATION Oral administration (by mouth)Injection (intravenous, intramuscular, or subcutaneous injection)Inhalation (smoking)Absorption through the skin or membranes(intranasal sniffing, sublingual absorption, rectal suppository, transdermal patch)
6 DRUG USE PREVALENCE RATES FOR U.S. HIGH SCHOOL SENIORS IN 2005 Over the previous 30 days:Alcohol percentBinge drinking percentAt least 1 cigarette every day percentAt least a half-pack every day percent
7 PROTECTIVE FACTORS FOR DRUG USE An intact and positive home environment— strong parent-child attachmentA positive educational experience— aspirations/expectations to go to collegeConventional peer relationships— social conforming attitudes among peersPositive attitudes and beliefs— high self-esteem
8 RISK FACTORS FOR MARIJUANA USE At least a few close friends tried or used marijuanaWas ever offered marijuanaFriends not very upset if tried marijuana once or twiceMarijuana easy to getPerception of not great risk for monthly marijuana use
9 FAMILY DYNAMICS AND DRUG ABUSE Stages in the family reaction: denial, anger, bargaining, feeling, acceptanceEnabling behaviors as obstacles to rehabilitationSurvival roles and coping mechanisms
10 PREVENTION AND TREATMENT IN THE WORKPLACE Employee Assistance Programs (EAPs)Drug testing in the workplaceEconomic costs of AOD abuseImpact of drug-free workplace policies
11 FINDING THE BEST TREATMENT PROGRAM Inpatient versus outpatient treatmentPharmacological versus psychotherapy or counselingSelf-help groups versus individualized treatmentLength of treatment programAftercare in terms of half-way or recovery houses
12 “ALCOHOL 101” PROGRAMS AlcoholEdu --- a web-based online course AlcoholEdu for Sanctions --- an intervention program for students who have violated academic policies on alcohol use
13 WHERE YOU CAN GO FOR HELP Yellow pages of the telephone book, under “Alcoholism Information” or “Drug Abuse and Addiction Information”National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information (NCADI), accessed through its web site at