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Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (7th Ed)

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Presentation on theme: "Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (7th Ed)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (7th Ed)
Chapter 10 Thinking and Language Part 2 James A. McCubbin, PhD Clemson University Worth Publishers

2 Language Language our spoken, written, or gestured works and the way we combine them to communicate meaning

3 Language Phoneme Morpheme
in a spoken language, the smallest distinctive sound unit “th” Morpheme in a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning may be a word or a part of a word (such as a prefix) “I”

4 Language Grammar Semantics Syntax
a system of rules in a language that enables us to communicate with and understand others Semantics the set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language also, the study of meaning Syntax the rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given language

5 Language We are all born to recognize speech sounds from all the world’s languages 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 Percentage able to discriminate Hindi t’s Hindi- speaking adults 6-8 months 8-10 10-12 English- Infants from English-speaking homes

6 Language Babbling Stage One-Word Stage beginning at 3 to 4 months
the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language One-Word Stage from about age 1 to 2 the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly in single words

7 Language Two-Word Stage Telegraphic Speech beginning about age 2
the stage in speech development during which a child speaks in mostly two-word statements Telegraphic Speech early speech stage in which the child speaks like a telegram-–“go car”--using mostly nouns and verbs and omitting “auxiliary” words

8 Language Summary of Language Development Month (approximate) Stage 4
10 12 24 24+ Babbles many speech sounds. Babbling reveals households language. One-word stage. Two-world, telegraphic speech. Language develops rapidly into complete sentences.

9 Language Genes design the mechanisms for a language, and experience activates them as it modifies the brain

10 Language New language learning gets harder with age 100 90 80 70 60 50
Native 3-7 8-10 11-15 17-39 Percentage correct on grammar test Age at school New language learning gets harder with age

11 Skinner explains Language
Operant Conditioning Association: we associate the sight of things with the sounds of words Imitation: copy model’s words and syntax Reinforcements: smile and such when we get it right

12 Chomsky explains language
Inborn universal grammar He says babies learn to fast for Skinner to be right Babies understand language before they start speaking Language acquisition device in us activates when we experience language

13 Language explanations
Cognitive Neuroscientists Believe in statistical learning (a combination of Skinner and Chomsky)

14 Thinking and Language are linked
Linguistic Determinism Whorf’s hypothesis that language determines the way we think Different languages impose different concepts of reality

15 Language influenced Thinking
Relationship between language and culture Gender linked (stereotypes) New words = new ways of thinking Learning a new language is very beneficial

16 Language The interplay of thought and language

17 Thinking without Language
Think in images Mentally practice skills or procedures Visualize overcoming things or positive outcomes

18 Animal Thinking and Language
Direction of nectar source The straight-line part of the dance points in the direction of a nectar source, relative to the sun

19 Honey bees Karl von Frisch
They do communicate, but not considered language Dance

20 Animal Thinking and Language
Gestured Communication

21 Animal Thinking and Language
Is this really language?

22 Do Animals Think Show insight Use of tools Solve problems
Most agree they are on level of 2 year old human Garnders taught sign language to Washoe the Chimp Patterson taught Koko the gorilla

23 Can Apes really talk? Limited vocabulary and with great difficulty
To similar to classical conditioning Interchange phrases w/out realizing that meaning has changed Many say it’s just modeling And that trainers are biased Younger animals learn more/better/faster People still disagree

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