Presentation on theme: "Ecology. The Biosphere Earth that supports living things, includes air, land, and water Nonliving environment: Abiotic factors Air currents Temperature."— Presentation transcript:
The Biosphere Earth that supports living things, includes air, land, and water Nonliving environment: Abiotic factors Air currents Temperature Moisture Light Soil
The Biosphere Living organisms in an environment: Biotic factors Depend on others directly or indirectly for: Food Shelter Reproduction Protection
Levels of Organization 1.) Organism 2.) Population Group of organisms in same species (same area, same time) Interbreed Competition
Levels of Organization 3.) Community Interacting populations (certain area, certain time) Change in 1 population causes change in another population
Levels of Organization 4.) Ecosystem Interacting populations in a biological community and its abiotic factors 2 types: Terrestrial ecosystems (land: forest, meadows, logs) Aquatic ecosystem (water: ponds, lakes, and streams); marine 70% of Earth’s surface
Levels of Organization 5.) Biosphere The Earth including all of its abiotic and biotic factors.
Organisms in an Ecosystem Habitat: place organism lives Niche: organism’s job
Survival Relationships Predator-prey relationships (temporary) & Symbiosis (Symbiotic relationships) living together; close association between organisms of different species Permanent or long-lasting
Survival Relationships Three types of symbiosis Mutualism… Commensalism… Parasitism…
Symbiotic Relationships Mutualism Both species benefit Example: ants and acacia trees Ant protects the tree from animals Tree nectar and home for ants
Symbiotic Relationships Parasitism Harm 1 species & benefits the other Harm but not usually kill host Ticks, lice, tapeworms, some bacteria Cowbirds –lay eggs in other birds nest, their young survive instead of other bird’s young
Nutrition and Energy Flow Chapter 2.2 Page 46 - 63
Flow of Energy Ultimate source of energy for life: SUN The producers Autotrophs Use photosynthesis to convert light energy into chemical energy Examples: plants & green algae
Flow of Energy The consumers Heterotrophs Feeds on other organisms Herbivore feeds only on plants Carnivore feed only on other heterotrophs; meat Scavengers eat dead animals Omnivores eat both autotrophs (plants) & heterotrophs (animals) Decomposers break down and release nutrients from dead organisms
Flow in Ecosystems Energy is released into environment as heat as you move through the levels Models used to study the flow: Food Chain Food Web
Food Chain Food chain: nutrients and energy move from autotrophs to heterotrophs to decomposers Berries Mice Black bear Trophic level: feeding step in the passage of energy and materials One possible route for transfer of matter and energy
Ecological Pyramids Shows how energy flows through an ecosystem Amount of available energy decreases at each succeeding trophic level Total energy transfer to each level: 10% Biomass: total weight of living matter at each trophic level
Directions: On page 41, Table 2.1 lists a variety of ecosystems that exist in our biosphere (earth). Choose one of these ecosystems that you are familiar with and create an illustration of a typical food web (pg 5) AND food chain (pg 7) that contains examples of consumers and producers from each trophic level. BE CREATIVE! Draw pictures, use color, use headings! In your BIN, pages 5 & 7, you’ll create a food web and food chain.
Cycles of Nature Water Cycle *** Carbon Cycle*** The Nitrogen Cycle Phosphorous Cycle
The Water Cycle All life depends on water. The water cycle explains how water is recycled throughout the biosphere. Evaporation, condensation, precipitation, and transpiration are all important processes that move water throughout this cycle.
The Nitrogen Cycle All life on earth is based on carbon molecules. Framework for macromolecules (polymers) Autotrophs take in carbon dioxide to produce sugar which heterotrophs eat. Heterotrophs breath out CO2 which autotrophs take in…and the cycle continues. BACTERIA FIX NITROGEN!!