6 Big Ideas of Romanticism IntuitionExperienceIndividualNatureIdealIntuition is more trustworthy than reasonPersonal experience > universal principlesIndividual is center of life; God is center of individualNature is symbolic—leads to understanding of supernaturalWe shouild strive for the ideal—what is ought to besource: Skipp, Francis in American Literature
7 Characteristics of American Romanticism Values feeling over reasonPlaces faith in inner experience and imaginationShuns artificiality of civilization; seeks unspoiled naturePrefers youthful innocence to educated sophisticationEmphasizes individual freedom and worthBelieves nature’s beauty can lead to spiritual an moral developmentElements of Literature (145)
8 Characteristics of American Romanticism Looks backward to the wisdom of past and distrusts progressFinds beauty and truth inExotic localesSupernatural realmInner world of the imaginationSees poetry as the highest expression of the imaginationFinds inspiration in myth, legend, and folk cultureElements of Literature (145)
9 A New Hero Young or youthful Innocent and pure of purpose Sense of honor based on principle higher than society’s rulesUnderstanding of the world is intuitive, not based on formal learningLoves natureQuests for higher truth in the natural worldElements of Literature 149
10 Legacy Lasting Effects of American Romanticism Humanitarian reformAbolitionismFeminismLiberal religious movementsUnitariansimUniversalismEconomic experimentsCommunal living (Brook Farm, New Harmony)James D. Hart, The Oxford Companion to American Literature, 6th ed. (572).
11 Light Romanticism Emily Dickinson Walt Whitman Ralph Waldo Emerson “Some Keep the Sabbath Going to Church”Walt Whitman“Learn'd Astronomer”Ralph Waldo Emerson“Each & All”Focus on the inherent inner light of humans, the beauty of nature, and the perfection of the universe.
12 Dark Romanticism Nathaniel Hawthorne Washington Irving “The Birthmark” (packet 131)“Dr. Heidegger's Experiment” (packet 124)Washington Irving“Devil and Tom Walker” (packet 93)Focus on the inherent inner darkness of humans, the perverseness of spirit, and the flaw of the universe.
13 Dark Romanticism Key Beliefs: Romantics see value in unspoiled nature and shun artificiality (things that are not natural)Show the inner darkness in humanity-man’s potential for evilSee nature as a powerful and punishing forceUses gothic or grotesque imagery (think dark or threatening)
14 Quiz: “The Birthmark”In a well-developed paragraph(s), discuss the four elements of dark romanticism. Use examples from “The Birthmark” to explain and further your analysis.Quiz is worth 25 points.
15 Transcendentalism Ralph Waldo Emerson Henry David Thoreau “Self Reliance” (packet 67)“Each and All” (packet 66)Henry David Thoreau“Civil Disobedience” (packet 69)WaldenSolitude (packet 80)Conclusion (packet 84)Built on the idea of the inner light, but believed that this was the divine spark, that humans carry God inside us. And because we all carry the divine, we are all capable of perfection.
16 Transcendentalism Immanuel Kant “…concerned not with objects but with our mode of knowing objects."source
17 Transcendental Beliefs the spark of divinity lies within man;everything in the world is a microcosm of existencethe individual soul is identical to the world soul (Emerson’s Over-Soul)By meditation, by communing with nature, through work and art, man could transcend his senses and attain an understanding of beauty and goodness and truth.source
18 Transcendentalists Belief in the Inner Light Authority of Self Walt Whitman's IRalph Waldo Emerson’s doctrine of Self-RelianceHenry David Thoreau's civil disobedience,Utopian communities at Brook Farmsource
19 Hudson River PaintersArt as an agent of moral and spiritual transformationKindred Spirits, Asher B. Durand, 1849