2 the structure of body parts Anatomy is ….the structure of body partsPhysiology is …the function of body partsPrinciple of Complementary of Structure and FunctionWhat a structure can do depends on its specific formGross anatomy, macroscopic anatomy – study of large body structures you can see.Regional anatomy – structures in a particular areaSystemic anatomy – structures in a body systemMicroscopic anatomy – tissues or celluarCytology – study of cellsHistology – study of tissuesRenal physiology – kidney functionCardiovascular physiology – heart and blood vesselsStructure and function – a & p inseparableBones can support and protect body organs because they contain hard minerals, heart pushes blood one way because it has valves that prevent backflow, lungs can support gas exchange because the walls of the air sacks very, very thin.
3 There is organization in the body Chemical levelCellular levelTissue levelThere are levels of organization.Atoms form molecules, molecules form macromolecuesCell is the basic unit of structure and function. Different size, shape, specialized function but similar characteristics – they contain structures called organlles.Cells organized into layers or masses that have common functions = tissuesGroups of tissues interact to form organs, complex structures with specialized functions.Groups of organs form organ systems and organ systems make up an organismChemical level – atoms are organized into moleculesCellular level – molecules organized into cellsTissue level – cells are organized into tissues, groups of similar cells, usually have similar embryological origins, perform specialized functions
4 Anatomical PositionStand erect facing observerHead level, eyes facing forwardFeet flat on floor, directed forwardArms at side, palms turned forwardProne – body lying face downSupine – body lying face up
5 Axial skeleton – the main axis of the body, head, neck, trunk Appendicular skeleton – the appendages, limbs attached to the axial skeleton
6 Regional terms to designate specific body areas Anatomical regionsPg 17, Figure 1-6 goes over these, some we are familiar with – pelvic region (pelvis), lumbar region (lower back),Two methods are used to map the surface of the abdomen and pelvis. Quadrants is similar but helpful when trying to identify complaints. A more precise way is to use the 9 regions in a.We will concentrate on the quadrants
7 Body Planes A. Sagittal: Divide into equal halves (midsagittal) or divides the body into a right side and a left side ([para]sagittal)B. Frontal (Coronal): Divide from side to side or divide the body into an anterior (ventral – front, belly side) and posterior (dorsal - back)C. Transverse: Divide crosswise or horizontally or to divide body into upper (superior) and lower (inferior) partsWe should know these terms
8 Superior – (cranial) upper or above or toward the head Inferior – (caudal) lower or below or toward feetAnterior or Ventral – front or in front ofPosterior or Dorsal – back or in back ofMedian – toward the midlineLateral – toward the side of the body or away from the midlineProximal – toward or nearest the trunk or nearest the point of origin of one its partsDistal – away from the trunk or farthest from the point of a body part attachmentSuperficial – nearest the surfaceDeep – farther away from the surfacePlantar – sole of footPalmar – palm of handA. Superior: cranialupper or above or toward the head B. Inferior: caudallower or below or toward the feetC. Anterior/Ventral:front or in front ofD. Posterior/Dorsal:back or in back ofE. Median:toward the midlineF. Lateral: toward the side of the body or away from the midlineG. Proximal:toward or nearest the trunk or nearest the point of origin of one of its partsH. Distal:away from the trunk or farthest from the point of a body part attachment to the trunk.I. Superficial:nearest the surfaceJ. Deep: farther away from the surfaceK. Plantar: sole of footL. Palmar: palm of handOn pg 19
9 The heart is superior to the liver The stomach is inferior to the lungsThe breastbone is anterior to the heartThe esophagus is posterior to the trachea (windpipe)The heart is medial to the armThe lungs are lateral to the heartThe elbow is proximal to the wristThe knee is distal to the thighSuperficial – toward or at the body surfaceDeep – away from the body surface; more internalPlantar – pertaining to the toes, ball of footPalmar – pertaining to the hand, palm
10 Directional Movement Reference Words Abduction – move away from body midlineAdduction – move closer to body midlineMore words to describe other motions:Hyperextension – extension beyond the anatomical positionCircumduction – moving your arm in a loop, as when drawing a large circle on a wallRotation – turning around the longitudinal axis of body – rotating head left or rightPronation – moving wrist from palm up to palm facing backSupination – (soo-pi-NA-shun) opposite, turn palm forwardInversion – twisting motion of foot, turning sole inward – opposite is eversionDorsiflexion – flexion of ankle joint, digging in your heel – opposite is plantar flexion, extending ankle joint and elevating heel, standing on tiptoeOpposition – movement of thumb toward the palm or fingertips, allowing your to grasp objectsProtraction – moving body part anteriorly, toward front; grasp upper lip with lower teeth, protract clavicles when you cross armsRetraction – opposite, moving body part toward backElevation – moving structure superiorly; elevate mandible when you close itdepression – move structure inferiorly; depress mandible when you open your mouth
11 Directional Movement Reference Words Extension – increase joint angle between articulating elementsFlexion – reduce joint angle between articulating elements
12 Anterior PosteriorTerm Meaning Term Meaning Term MeaningFrontal Forehead Buccal Cheek Dorsum of foot Back of footFacial Face Mental Chin Occipital Back of headCervical Neck Antecubital Elbow front Scapular Shoulder bladePectoral Chest Pelvic Pelvis Vertebral SpinalAcromial Shoulder point Pollex Thumb Lumbar Lower backBrachial Arm Digital Fingers/ toe Sacral Between hipThoracic Chest Mammary Breast Gluteal ButtockCubital Elbow Fibular Side of leg Dorsum of hand Back of handSternal Breastbone Hallux Great toe Perineal Between anus and genitaliaAbdominal Abdomen Pedal Foot Popliteal Posterior kneeUmbilical Navel Tarsal Ankle Calcaneal HeelAntebrachial Forearm Pubic Genital Cephalic HeadInguinal Groin Femoral Thigh Otic EarCoxal Hip Patellar Anterior knee Dorsal BackCarpal Wrist Crural Leg Olecranal Back of elbowPalmar Palm Nasal Nose Sural CalfAxillary Armpit Orbital Eye Plantar Sole`
13 Body Cavities Ventral Cavity Thoracic cavity Abdominopelvic cavity Abdominal cavityPelvic cavityDorsal CavityCranial cavitySpinal cavity (Vertebral canal)2 major cavities – ventral & dorsalThe cavities, or spaces, of the body contain the internal organs, or viscera. The two main cavities are called the ventral and dorsal cavities. The ventral is the larger cavity and is subdivided into two parts (thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities) by the diaphragm, a dome-shaped respiratory muscle.Thoracic cavity The upper ventral, thoracic, or chest cavity contains the heart, lungs, trachea, esophagus, large blood vessels, and nerves. The thoracic cavity is bound laterally by the ribs (covered by costal pleura) and the diaphragm caudally (covered by diaphragmatic pleura). Within this cavity are smaller cavities, housing organs. Pericardial cavity has the heart; pleural cavity the lungs; the mediastinum (mee dee as tee num) house the pericardial cavity (heart), large arteries & veins, thymus, trachea and esophagus. These inner cavities have a watery membrane called a serous membrane.Abdominal and pelvic cavity The lower part of the ventral (abdominopelvic) cavity can be further divided into two portions: abdominal portion and pelvic portion. The abdominal cavity contains most of the gastrointestinal tract as well as the kidneys and adrenal glands. The abdominal cavity is bound cranially by the diaphragm, laterally by the body wall, and caudally by the pelvic cavity. The pelvic cavity contains most of the urogenital system as well as the rectum. The pelvic cavity is bounded cranially by the abdominal cavity, dorsally by the sacrum, and laterally by the pelvis.Dorsal cavity The smaller of the two main cavities is called the dorsal cavity. As its name implies, it contains organs lying more posterior in the body. The dorsal cavity, again, can be divided into two portions. The upper portion, or the cranial cavity, houses the brain, and the lower portion, or vertebral canal houses the spinal cord.
14 Sections What kind of view – cut – taken for this image? Transverse MriA TransverseB Sagittal
15 The way you cut it makes a difference! Transverse Plan Frontal or Sagittal Plane Oblique PlaneDifferent images show different things but different angles through the body also show different things.You have to be able to anticipate what an organ may look like when cut at different angles and along different planes.