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Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology

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1 Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology

2 the structure of body parts
Anatomy is …. the structure of body parts Physiology is … the function of body parts Principle of Complementary of Structure and Function What a structure can do depends on its specific form Gross anatomy, macroscopic anatomy – study of large body structures you can see. Regional anatomy – structures in a particular area Systemic anatomy – structures in a body system Microscopic anatomy – tissues or celluar Cytology – study of cells Histology – study of tissues Renal physiology – kidney function Cardiovascular physiology – heart and blood vessels Structure and function – a & p inseparable Bones can support and protect body organs because they contain hard minerals, heart pushes blood one way because it has valves that prevent backflow, lungs can support gas exchange because the walls of the air sacks very, very thin.

3 There is organization in the body
Chemical level Cellular level Tissue level There are levels of organization. Atoms form molecules, molecules form macromolecues Cell is the basic unit of structure and function. Different size, shape, specialized function but similar characteristics – they contain structures called organlles. Cells organized into layers or masses that have common functions = tissues Groups of tissues interact to form organs, complex structures with specialized functions. Groups of organs form organ systems and organ systems make up an organism Chemical level – atoms are organized into molecules Cellular level – molecules organized into cells Tissue level – cells are organized into tissues, groups of similar cells, usually have similar embryological origins, perform specialized functions

4 Anatomical Position Stand erect facing observer Head level, eyes facing forward Feet flat on floor, directed forward Arms at side, palms turned forward Prone – body lying face down Supine – body lying face up

5 Axial skeleton – the main axis of the body, head, neck, trunk
Appendicular skeleton – the appendages, limbs attached to the axial skeleton

6 Regional terms to designate specific body areas
Anatomical regions Pg 17, Figure 1-6 goes over these, some we are familiar with – pelvic region (pelvis), lumbar region (lower back), Two methods are used to map the surface of the abdomen and pelvis. Quadrants is similar but helpful when trying to identify complaints. A more precise way is to use the 9 regions in a. We will concentrate on the quadrants

7 Body Planes A. Sagittal:
Divide into equal halves (midsagittal) or divides the body into a right side and a left side ([para]sagittal) B. Frontal (Coronal):  Divide from side to side or divide the body into an anterior (ventral – front, belly side) and posterior (dorsal - back) C. Transverse:  Divide crosswise or horizontally or to divide body into upper (superior) and lower (inferior) parts We should know these terms

8 Superior – (cranial) upper or above or toward the head
Inferior – (caudal) lower or below or toward feet Anterior or Ventral – front or in front of Posterior or Dorsal – back or in back of Median – toward the midline Lateral – toward the side of the body or away from the midline Proximal – toward or nearest the trunk or nearest the point of origin of one its parts Distal – away from the trunk or farthest from the point of a body part attachment Superficial – nearest the surface Deep – farther away from the surface Plantar – sole of foot Palmar – palm of hand A. Superior:  cranial upper or above or toward the head       B. Inferior: caudal lower or below or toward the feet C. Anterior/Ventral: front or in front of D. Posterior/Dorsal: back or in back of E. Median: toward the midline F. Lateral:  toward the side of the body or away from the midline G. Proximal: toward or nearest the trunk or nearest the point of origin of one of its parts H. Distal: away from the trunk or farthest from the point of a body part attachment to the trunk. I. Superficial: nearest the surface J. Deep:       farther away from the surface K. Plantar: sole of foot L. Palmar: palm of hand On pg 19

9 The heart is superior to the liver
The stomach is inferior to the lungs The breastbone is anterior to the heart The esophagus is posterior to the trachea (windpipe) The heart is medial to the arm The lungs are lateral to the heart The elbow is proximal to the wrist The knee is distal to the thigh Superficial – toward or at the body surface Deep – away from the body surface; more internal Plantar – pertaining to the toes, ball of foot Palmar – pertaining to the hand, palm

10 Directional Movement Reference Words
Abduction – move away from body midline Adduction – move closer to body midline More words to describe other motions: Hyperextension – extension beyond the anatomical position Circumduction – moving your arm in a loop, as when drawing a large circle on a wall Rotation – turning around the longitudinal axis of body – rotating head left or right Pronation – moving wrist from palm up to palm facing back Supination – (soo-pi-NA-shun) opposite, turn palm forward Inversion – twisting motion of foot, turning sole inward – opposite is eversion Dorsiflexion – flexion of ankle joint, digging in your heel – opposite is plantar flexion, extending ankle joint and elevating heel, standing on tiptoe Opposition – movement of thumb toward the palm or fingertips, allowing your to grasp objects Protraction – moving body part anteriorly, toward front; grasp upper lip with lower teeth, protract clavicles when you cross arms Retraction – opposite, moving body part toward back Elevation – moving structure superiorly; elevate mandible when you close it depression – move structure inferiorly; depress mandible when you open your mouth

11 Directional Movement Reference Words
Extension – increase joint angle between articulating elements Flexion – reduce joint angle between articulating elements

12 Anterior Posterior Term Meaning Term Meaning Term Meaning Frontal Forehead Buccal Cheek Dorsum of foot Back of foot Facial Face Mental Chin Occipital Back of head Cervical Neck Antecubital Elbow front Scapular Shoulder blade Pectoral Chest Pelvic Pelvis Vertebral Spinal Acromial Shoulder point Pollex Thumb Lumbar Lower back Brachial Arm Digital Fingers/ toe Sacral Between hip Thoracic Chest Mammary Breast Gluteal Buttock Cubital Elbow Fibular Side of leg Dorsum of hand Back of hand Sternal Breastbone Hallux Great toe Perineal Between anus and genitalia Abdominal Abdomen Pedal Foot Popliteal Posterior knee Umbilical Navel Tarsal Ankle Calcaneal Heel Antebrachial Forearm Pubic Genital Cephalic Head Inguinal Groin Femoral Thigh Otic Ear Coxal Hip Patellar Anterior knee Dorsal Back Carpal Wrist Crural Leg Olecranal Back of elbow Palmar Palm Nasal Nose Sural Calf Axillary Armpit Orbital Eye Plantar Sole`

13 Body Cavities Ventral Cavity Thoracic cavity Abdominopelvic cavity
Abdominal cavity Pelvic cavity Dorsal Cavity Cranial cavity Spinal cavity (Vertebral canal) 2 major cavities – ventral & dorsal The cavities, or spaces, of the body contain the internal organs, or viscera. The two main cavities are called the ventral and dorsal cavities. The ventral is the larger cavity and is subdivided into two parts (thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities) by the diaphragm, a dome-shaped respiratory muscle. Thoracic cavity The upper ventral, thoracic, or chest cavity contains the heart, lungs, trachea, esophagus, large blood vessels, and nerves. The thoracic cavity is bound laterally by the ribs (covered by costal pleura) and the diaphragm caudally (covered by diaphragmatic pleura). Within this cavity are smaller cavities, housing organs. Pericardial cavity has the heart; pleural cavity the lungs; the mediastinum (mee dee as tee num) house the pericardial cavity (heart), large arteries & veins, thymus, trachea and esophagus. These inner cavities have a watery membrane called a serous membrane. Abdominal and pelvic cavity The lower part of the ventral (abdominopelvic) cavity can be further divided into two portions: abdominal portion and pelvic portion. The abdominal cavity contains most of the gastrointestinal tract as well as the kidneys and adrenal glands. The abdominal cavity is bound cranially by the diaphragm, laterally by the body wall, and caudally by the pelvic cavity. The pelvic cavity contains most of the urogenital system as well as the rectum. The pelvic cavity is bounded cranially by the abdominal cavity, dorsally by the sacrum, and laterally by the pelvis. Dorsal cavity The smaller of the two main cavities is called the dorsal cavity. As its name implies, it contains organs lying more posterior in the body. The dorsal cavity, again, can be divided into two portions. The upper portion, or the cranial cavity, houses the brain, and the lower portion, or vertebral canal houses the spinal cord.

14 Sections What kind of view – cut – taken for this image? Transverse
Mri A Transverse B Sagittal

15 The way you cut it makes a difference!
Transverse Plan Frontal or Sagittal Plane Oblique Plane Different images show different things but different angles through the body also show different things. You have to be able to anticipate what an organ may look like when cut at different angles and along different planes.

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