Presentation on theme: "1 The Electrical nature of mater STATIC ELECTRICITY."— Presentation transcript:
1 The Electrical nature of mater STATIC ELECTRICITY
2 ELECTROSTATICS Electrostatics is the science and study of static electric charge.
3 The Electrical Nature of matter model – uses the fact that all of an atom’s subatomic particles are made up by 3 types of particles. A neutral electrical charge N 0, a positive charge P +,and a negative charge e -.
4 STATIC ELECTRICITY Static Electricity is the stationary building up electric charge on a substance. The electrons (negative charges) are transferred to a surface and then do not move (stay in one place). Rubbing different surfaces together produces static electricity resulting from both surfaces having a different electrical charge.
5 TYPES OF CHARGES The atom is made up of positive protons and negative electrons. It is the loss and gain of electrons that creates different charges. Neutral-The number of electrons and protons are equal. Positive (+) -Electrons are lost from the object, making it positively charged. Negative (-) -Electrons are gained by an object, making it negatively charged.
6 THE LAW OF ELECTRIC CHARGES 1. Neutral objects are attracted to charged objects. 2. Like charges (-,- or +,+) repel each other. 3. Opposite charges (+,-) attract each other.
7 HOW OBJECTS BECOME CHARGED There are 3 ways an object can become charged: 1. By FRICTION 2. By CONTACT 3. By INDUCTION Let’s look at each of these in more detail….
8 CHARGING BY FRICTION Static Electricity is produced through the action of rubbing two different surfaces together. Electrons are transferred from one object to the other. The surface that loses electrons becomes positively charged and the object that gains electrons becomes negatively charged.
9 CHARGING BY CONTACT Static charge can be transferred directly to a neutral uncharged object by touching it with a charged object. When the neutral uncharged object becomes charged by direct contact, the kind of charge transferred is the same as that of the charged object.
10 DEFINITIONS 1. Conductor – A substance that easily allows electricity to flow through it by means of many loosely bound electrons in its atomic structure. 2. Insulator- A substance that does not easily allow electricity to flow through it by means of many internal covalent bonds reducing electron availability. 3. Grounding- Allowing charges to move freely between a conductor and the ground (earth)
11 CHARGING BY INDUCTION INDUCTION- When something is made to happen without direct contact. ie: to “induce” Electrostatic induction is a third way to transfer an electric charge form one substance to another without direct contact. The other 2 methods both required physical contact between the two objects but induction charging does not.