Presentation on theme: "The Effects of HIV/AIDS on the Immune System Kylina, Kate, Sarah, Jackie."— Presentation transcript:
The Effects of HIV/AIDS on the Immune System Kylina, Kate, Sarah, Jackie
What is HIV? Human Immunodeficiency Virus HIV is a virus that infects and destroys cells necessary to activate immune responses by attacking the body’s T-Cells and helper T-Cells HIV-1 originated in West-Central Africa in the first half of the 20th century when a closely related chimpanzee virus first infected humans The global spread of HIV-1 has been documented to have occurred in the 1970s, and AIDS was first recognized in 1981
What is AIDS? Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome It is different than HIV. (HIV and AIDS are not interchangeable) AIDS is a condition where the body’s specific defense system against all infectious agents no longer functions properly A person is diagnosed with AIDS after acquiring a certain disease or sickness that a normal, healthy person wouldn’t catch.
How does HIV affect the body? HIV infects cells necessary to activate immune responses Helper T-cells Without helper T-cells, body cannot make antibodies properly, nor can infected cells containing HIV be properly eliminated The Virus can: Multiply Kill the helper T-cells in which it lives Infect adjacent helper T-cells Repeat the cycle until there is a substantial loss of helper T-cells
How does HIV affect the body? Virus and immune system fight for supremacy Body makes more T-cells, that mature into helper T-cells Virus still attacks these new T-cells as body continues to make them This process continues until the body can no longer create T-cells up to 10 years Loss of helper T-cells results in complete inability of the body to ward off any organisms This acquired condition of immunodeficiency is called AIDS
How does HIV cause AIDS? Infection HIV can copy itself and infect cells before your immune system has time to react. Flu-like symptoms occur Response The body responds to the virus by making antibodies. This is called seroconversion when you move from HIV negative to positive AIDS It is diagnosed (not a definite way to diagnose AIDS) when you have certain symptoms, infections, and specific test results
How does HIV cause AIDS? Person with a healthy immune system has a CD4 count is 500 to 1800 Person is diagnosed with AIDS when the CD4 count goes below 200 or if they have HIV with certain infections After the CD4 count dips below 200, a person infected with HIV becomes increasingly more susceptible to opportunistic infections, and it is this that develops into AIDS. Such infections include: are pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP), Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) and cytomegalovirus.
How is HIV transmitted? Sexual contact with an infected person Sharing needles or syringes with someone who is infected Through transfusions of infected blood Babies born to HIV Infected women may infected their child before birth, during birth, or through breastfeeding after birth Infected blood gets into an open cut or a mucous membrane For example, the eyes or the inside of the nose
What are the social implications of HIV/AIDS? Worldwide, about 33.2 million people are estimated to be infected There are about 2.5 million new infections and 2.1 million deaths each year Most (95%) occur in developing countries One half occur in women, and one in seven occur in children under 15 years old In parts of Africa, more than 30% of people between the ages of 15 and 45 are infected This threat can dramatically reduce the life expectancy of a whole generation
What are the social implications of HIV/AIDS? The dramatic loss of people due to AIDS in certain countries has caused negative impacts in societies Economically, infected men and women cannot provide for their households Expenses for the treatment of HIV/AIDS has taken a toll on healthcare systems, especially in Africa Businesses and agriculture has taken a hard hit due to a loss of workers
HIV/AIDS Statistics, 2007 RegionAdults (15+) Living with HIV/AIDS, 2007 Percent of Adults (15+) living with HIV/AIDS that are women, 2007 Children (<15) living with HIV/AIDS, 2007 Adult (15+) and child deaths due to AIDS, 2007 Sub-Saharan Africa22.0 million59%1.8 million1.5 million South/Southeast Asia4.2 million37%140,000340,000 Eastern Europe/ Central Asia 1.5 million31%12,00058,000 Latin America1.7 million32%44,00063,000 North America1.2 million21%4,40023,000 East Asia740,00027%7,80040,000 Western/Central Europe 730,00027%1,3008,000 Middle East/ North Africa 380,00054%26,00027,000 Caribbean230,00050%11,00014,000 Oceania74,00030%1,1001,000 Global32.9 million50%2.0 million Source: globalhealthreporting.org
Effect of AIDS on Child Mortality, 2002-2005 Source: UNPopulation Division, World Population Prospects: The 2004 Revision(2005); and UNAIDS and UNICEF, A Call to Action: Children, the Missing Face of AIDS(2005)
Prevention of HIV/AIDS Improve the infrastructure and capacity of healthcare systems to provide treatment Education Educate people on the impacts of HIV/AIDS and the ways that they can prevent the infection of themselves or others Reduce poverty, illiteracy, and other social, economic and political factors that increases people’s vulnerability to HIV