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The Great West and Agricultural Expansion

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Presentation on theme: "The Great West and Agricultural Expansion"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Great West and Agricultural Expansion

2 Destruction of the Indian

3 By the time of the Civil War an estimated 250,000 Indians lived in the west.

4 Great Plains tribes included the Comanche, Sioux, Cheyenne, Pawnee, Blackfoot, Crow - lived by following buffalo herds on horseback.

5 Southern Plains tribes included the Osage, Kiowa, Omaha, Iowa - less nomadic practiced some farming.

6 Desert Southwest - Navajo, Apache, Pueblo, Zuni, Hopi, - lived by both hunting and farming

7 Columbia Plateau / Western Rockies - Utes, Shoshone, Bannock, Snake, Modoc, Nez Perce', - hunting and gathering

8 Western coastal and desert - "Digger" tribes - primitive gatherers such as - Chumash, Yokuts, Yahi, Yurok.

9 Pacific Northwest - Kwakiutl, Haida, Tlingit, Bella Coola, Nootka, Salish, Tsimshian - Hunter / Fishers

10 Expansion of settlers, miners, cattlemen, railroads etc
Expansion of settlers, miners, cattlemen, railroads etc. - led to conflict and resettlement onto reservations.

11 Beginning with the Sioux treaty Federal government begins a program of concentrating plains Indians north and south of proposed white settlement areas.

12 1862 - Sioux uprising in Minnesota leads to trial and execution of Sioux leaders.

13 Sand Creek Massacre Cheyenne uprising in Colorado - Colonel J.M. Chivington's militia forces massacred 400 Indians at Sand Creek.

14 General Connors declares all Indians living north of the Platte River should be hunted like wolves.

15 The Ft. Kearney Massacre
Sioux defeat Federal troops at Fort Kearney in Montana.

16 1868 - Treaty of Fort Laramie ends First Sioux War.
Black Hills reservation ceded to Chief Red Cloud

17 Indian Appropriations Act - makes Indians wards of the state - no longer sovereign peoples. Tribes divided among religious groups to see to their civilizing.

18 Modoc War - Chief Kintpuash (Captain Jack) leads Modoc tribes against federal troops after refusing to live on Klamath Reservation. Tribal leaders hung - Modocs removed to Dakota reservation.

19 Troops under Lt. Colonel George Armstrong Custer discover gold in Black Hills territory of the Sioux, word is spread - gold rush follows.

20                                                                             = Second Sioux War - Gold prospectors enter Black Hills territory of the Sioux during the gold stampede of 1875

21 Sioux go on warpath under leadership of Sitting Bull, a shaman, and Crazy Horse - war chief of combined Sioux and Cheyenne.

22 Sitting Bull Crazy Horse

23 Lt. Colonel George Armstrong Custer
Custer's 7th cavalry of 250 men attack 4000 Indians at Little Big Horn River in Montana.

24 News of "Custer's Last Stand" inflames public sentiment against Sioux nation.

25 1877 - Crazy Horse, forced by hunger, surrenders and is bayoneted to death in prison.

26

27 1877 - Chief Joseph of the Nez Perce' fights U. S
Chief Joseph of the Nez Perce' fights U.S. Army under Colonel Nelson Miles.

28 Chief Joseph leads his people 1500 miles through Rockies but is trapped 30 miles from safety in Canada.

29

30 Chief Joseph claims he will "fight no more forever."
Nez Perce' sent to Oklahoma, all six of Joseph's sons die of malaria, tribe is decimated.

31 “From where the sun now stands in the sky, I will fight no more forever.”

32 Let me be a free man, free to travel, free to stop, free to work, free to trade where I choose, free to choose my own teachers, free to follow the religion of my fathers, free to think and talk and act for myself Chief Joseph, 1879

33 “We Cheyenne are trying to fight the whirlwind.”
Dull Knife Campaign - Cheyenne warriors break out of the Oklahoma reservation under Chief Dull Knife and seek to return to hunting grounds in the Montana Territory. “We Cheyenne are trying to fight the whirlwind.”

34 They avoid capture for months but are killed off or captured before reaching Montana.

35 Exterminating the Buffalo
                            

36

37 Professional hunters, such as Buffalo Bill Cody, killed over a hundred animals at a single stand and many thousands in their career. One professional hunter killed over 20,000 by his own count.

38

39 By 1884, the American Bison was close to extinction.
In 1874, President Ulysses S. Grant "pocket vetoed" a Federal bill to protect the dwindling bison herds, and in 1875 General Philip Sheridan pleaded to a joint session of Congress to slaughter the herds, to deprive the Indians of their source of food. By 1884, the American Bison was close to extinction. General Philip Sheridan

40

41

42 The current American bison population has been growing rapidly, and is estimated at 350,000 compared to an estimated 60 to 100 million in the mid-19th century.

43 Helen Hunt Jackson - writes A Century of Dishonor, detailing the governments treatment of Indians.

44 Policy begins to force Indians to "walk the white man's road"

45 1884 - U.S. Government outlaws the sacred Sun Dance rituals.

46 after fighting off the Army for years, Apache Chief Geronimo surrenders at Skeleton Canyon to Nelson Miles. Last of the Indian Chiefs to surrender.

47 "I should have never surrendered
"I should have never surrendered. I should have fought until I was the last man alive."

48 Dawes Severalty Act passed - abolished tribal ownership, gave 160 acres of land to each Indian to be held in trust for 25 years when "good" Indians would be given citizenship.

49

50 Dakota Sioux, in reaction to the destruction of their culture, began practicing the Ghost Dance- a belief that bullets would no longer kill them and that the buffalo would come back and the white man would die off. Wovoka

51 THE GHOST DANCE

52 Wounded Knee Massacre 200 men, women and children of the Dakota were killed at Wounded Knee, South Dakota ending the last Indian uprising.

53 Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee

54 The Mining Frontier

55 BOOM to BUST

56 Cowboys and Sodbusters

57 In answer to eastern need for beef, cattlemen in Texas begin rounding up Texas Longhorn beeves from the Rio Grande valley and driving them north.

58 Cattle Drives

59 Long Drives (1865 - 1887) Followed four major trails:
Goodnight-Loving, Western, Chisholm, Sedalia-Baxter

60 Ending in railroad junction towns such as Dodge City, Abilene, Cheyenne, Ogallala.

61 Cowboys

62 Railroad expansion, Barbed Wire, and the Winter of `87 led to the demise of the great cattle drives, trail riders gave way to Cattlemen's Associations.

63 “Bob” Wire

64 The Winter of ‘87

65

66

67 Dead Man’s Hand

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69 "The West is Dead My Friend
"The West is Dead My Friend...But the writers hold the seed and what they saw will live and grow again to those who read,"

70 The Homestead Act the Homestead Act - gave 160 acres (1/4 section) to anyone who would inhabit and improve the land. 500,000 families took advantage of the act, 5 times as many purchased land from railroads, states or others.

71

72 Much of this newly acquired land was west of the 100th meridian and 20" precipitation line - led to massive failure of farms using eastern techniques.

73 Sod Busters

74 New irrigation techniques, steel plows, combines, extensive farming, new varieties of wheat made dry farming possible in high plains. Created farming factories.

75 Revolutionized farming led to increased output and lower prices - marginal farmers driven off the land. 1880's 1/4 of all farms operated by tenant farmers.

76 The "Farm Crisis" Locusts and Boll Weevils Droughts Mono-cropping
Soil depletion. Floods Soil erosion

77 Over taxation Global competition Over production Middlemen

78 Industrial farmers Railroads Money-supply Bankers.

79 1867 - founding of the National Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry (The Grange) by Owen H. Kelly
sought cooperative farming, anti-railroad legislation, control of grain elevators.

80 800,000 members by 1875.

81 State Granger laws controlling railroads overturned by Wabash v
State Granger laws controlling railroads overturned by Wabash v. Illinois. Greenback Labor Party polls over a million votes - wins 14 seats in the House.

82 1880 - Greenback Labor runs General James B
Greenback Labor runs General James B. Weaver for president - 3% of popular vote. Farmer's Alliance founded in late 1880's - 1 million members by 1890.

83 Populist Party originates in early 1890's - Mary E
Populist Party originates in early 1890's - Mary E. Lease tells farmers to "raise less corn and more Hell."

84 The People’s Party

85 A Parable of Populism

86 The End of the Frontier Oklahoma territory opened to settlers (Boomers) rush to claim land. Illegal entry was made by Sooners before the opening - Oklahoma is the Sooner State.

87 Turner’s Thesis U.S. Census superintendent claims the frontier line is gone. Frederick Jackson Turner - claims the frontier had shaped the American psyche - with the "safety valve" gone, wither America now? Frederick Jackson Turner

88 The Panic of 1893 A depression begins in 1893 that will last for about four years

89 It is the first major depression of the modern industrial age.
It was caused by overbuilding, over speculation, labor disorders, and agricultural depression.

90 Silver issue led to poor credit for US
banks failed, businesses failed, thousands were out of work.

91

92 Charities set up soup kitchens for the thousands of hoboes living in the streets.

93 The Federal government followed laissez-faire policy, and did nothing.

94 Gold Panic Gold redemption of Silver Purchase Act causes an "endless chain" which drains the Treasuries gold reserves below the $100 million needed to support the $350 million of outstanding paper.

95 Cleveland calls a special session of Congress and seeks to repeal the Silver Purchase Act.

96 In the middle of the crisis the president has to secretly have a tumor removed from his mouth.

97 Congressional Opposition
Opposition to the repeal was led by the Nebraska Democrat William Jennings Bryan, whose great oratory made him famous throughout the country.

98 Cleveland was able to use the power of his office to get the law repealed – but alienated the “Silverites” in the Democratic Party.

99 In 1894 the gold reserves dropped to $41 million dollars and the country was in danger of going off the gold standard. Cleveland is forced to sell bonds to raise gold reserves.

100 The “endless chain” redemption continued to cause the treasury reserves to drop.
The Depression deepened.

101 Coxey's Commonweal Army
In the midst of the crisis a ragtag band of unemployed calling themselves Coxey's Commonweal Army marched on Washington to seek aid from the government – their leader Jacob Coxey was arrested for trespassing.

102 The Pullman Strike Violent labor strikes followed the unemployment and hard times for the working class.

103 In 1894, the Pullman company cut its workers wages by one-third
Eugene V. Debs led the American Railway Union to strike against Pullman Palace Car Company.

104 Governor Altgeld of Illinois urged restraint against strikers.

105 But the arch-conservative Attorney General Richard Olney called for the use of federal troops on the legal grounds that the strike was interfering with the U.S. Mail.

106 President Cleveland sent in the troops and the strike was brutally crushed.
Eugene Debs is jailed and becomes a Socialist.

107 Eugene V. Debs

108 The Pullman strike set a precedent for using court injunctions to end labor strikes and break up unions.

109 1894 Congressional Election
Republicans win the congressional election of 1894 in a landslide and begin to boast that they will win the White House in ‘96.

110 Morgan Steps In By 1895, the deepening gold crisis led Cleveland to seek loans from Wall Street bankers.

111 J.P. Morgan loans $65 million to federal government, confidence is restored.
The Banks will earn $7 million in interest.

112 Populists are enraged by the defeat of income tax and Cleveland’s sellout to “Jupiter” Morgan.

113 The book Coin’s Financial School becomes the bible of free-silverites and Silver becomes the issue of the Populist in 1896.

114 1896 Election William McKinley, "the Napoleon of Protection" gets Republican nomination, aided by "Hamiltonian" Mark Hanna's dollars.

115

116 Republicans declare for a bi-metal standard if accepted globally.

117 Democrats refuse to back Cleveland - seen as traitor
William Jennings Bryan makes "Cross of Gold" speech - He gets the nomination.

118 “You come to us and tell us that the great cities are in favor of the gold standard. We reply that the great cities rest upon our broad and fertile prairies. Burn down your cities and leave our farms, and your cities will spring up again as if by magic. But destroy our farms, and the grass will grow in the streets of every city in the country.”

119 “You shall not press down upon the brow of labor this crown of thorns, you shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold.”

120 Democratic Platform endorses a 16:1 ratio for silver purchase.
Conservative Democrats hoped for McKinley victory. Most Populists endorsed Bryan, who goes on a national speaking tour.

121 Gold Bugs give money to Hanna and McKinley, who runs a "front porch" campaign
McKinley defeats Bryan for Presidency.

122 Fear of depression leads to Bryan’s defeat.

123 The McKinley victory is seen as a win for big business, financial conservatism and middle class values. The 1896 election is seen as an end of a political era.

124 Gold Standard Act paper currency was to be redeemed freely in gold. New discoveries of gold in Yukon and South Africa led to increase in gold supply and money supply.

125 Inflation killed expansionists claims for silver standard.
Farm prices rose and farmers were better off.


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