30 Chief Joseph claims he will "fight no more forever." Nez Perce' sent to Oklahoma, all six of Joseph's sons die of malaria, tribe is decimated.
31 “From where the sun now stands in the sky, I will fight no more forever.”
32 Let me be a free man, free to travel, free to stop, free to work, free to trade where I choose, free to choose my own teachers, free to follow the religion of my fathers, free to think and talk and act for myself Chief Joseph, 1879
33 “We Cheyenne are trying to fight the whirlwind.” Dull Knife Campaign - Cheyenne warriors break out of the Oklahoma reservation under Chief Dull Knife and seek to return to hunting grounds in the Montana Territory.“We Cheyenne are trying to fight the whirlwind.”
34 They avoid capture for months but are killed off or captured before reaching Montana.
39 By 1884, the American Bison was close to extinction. In 1874, President Ulysses S. Grant "pocket vetoed" a Federal bill to protect the dwindling bison herds, and in1875 General Philip Sheridan pleaded to a joint session of Congress to slaughter the herds, to deprive the Indians of their source of food.By 1884, the American Bison was close to extinction.General Philip Sheridan
50 Dakota Sioux, in reaction to the destruction of their culture, began practicing the Ghost Dance- a belief that bullets would no longer kill them and that the buffalo would come back and the white man would die off.Wovoka
69 "The West is Dead My Friend "The West is Dead My Friend...But the writers hold the seed and what they saw will live and grow again to those who read,"
70 The Homestead Actthe Homestead Act - gave 160 acres (1/4 section) to anyone who would inhabit and improve the land.500,000 families took advantage of the act, 5 times as many purchased land from railroads, states or others.
81 State Granger laws controlling railroads overturned by Wabash v State Granger laws controlling railroads overturned by Wabash v. Illinois.Greenback Labor Party polls over a million votes - wins 14 seats in the House.
82 1880 - Greenback Labor runs General James B Greenback Labor runs General James B. Weaver for president - 3% of popular vote.Farmer's Alliance founded in late 1880's - 1 million members by 1890.
83 Populist Party originates in early 1890's - Mary E Populist Party originates in early 1890's - Mary E. Lease tells farmers to "raise less corn and more Hell."
86 The End of the FrontierOklahoma territory opened to settlers (Boomers) rush to claim land.Illegal entry was made by Sooners before the opening - Oklahoma is the Sooner State.
87 Turner’s ThesisU.S. Census superintendent claims the frontier line is gone.Frederick Jackson Turner - claims the frontier had shaped the American psyche - with the "safety valve" gone, wither America now?Frederick Jackson Turner
88 The Panic of 1893A depression begins in 1893 that will last for about four years
89 It is the first major depression of the modern industrial age. It was caused by overbuilding, over speculation, labor disorders, and agricultural depression.
90 Silver issue led to poor credit for US banks failed, businesses failed, thousands were out of work.
92 Charities set up soup kitchens for the thousands of hoboes living in the streets.
93 The Federal government followed laissez-faire policy, and did nothing.
94 Gold PanicGold redemption of Silver Purchase Act causes an "endless chain" which drains the Treasuries gold reserves below the $100 million needed to support the $350 million of outstanding paper.
95 Cleveland calls a special session of Congress and seeks to repeal the Silver Purchase Act.
96 In the middle of the crisis the president has to secretly have a tumor removed from his mouth.
97 Congressional Opposition Opposition to the repeal was led by the Nebraska Democrat William Jennings Bryan, whose great oratory made him famous throughout the country.
98 Cleveland was able to use the power of his office to get the law repealed – but alienated the “Silverites” in the Democratic Party.
99 In 1894 the gold reserves dropped to $41 million dollars and the country was in danger of going off the gold standard.Cleveland is forced to sell bonds to raise gold reserves.
100 The “endless chain” redemption continued to cause the treasury reserves to drop. The Depression deepened.
101 Coxey's Commonweal Army In the midst of the crisis a ragtag band of unemployed calling themselves Coxey's Commonweal Army marched on Washington to seek aid from the government – their leader Jacob Coxey was arrested for trespassing.
102 The Pullman StrikeViolent labor strikes followed the unemployment and hard times for the working class.
103 In 1894, the Pullman company cut its workers wages by one-third Eugene V. Debs led the American Railway Union to strike against Pullman Palace Car Company.
104 Governor Altgeld of Illinois urged restraint against strikers.
105 But the arch-conservative Attorney General Richard Olney called for the use of federal troops on the legal grounds that the strike was interfering with the U.S. Mail.
106 President Cleveland sent in the troops and the strike was brutally crushed. Eugene Debs is jailed and becomes a Socialist.
116 Republicans declare for a bi-metal standard if accepted globally.
117 Democrats refuse to back Cleveland - seen as traitor William Jennings Bryan makes "Cross of Gold" speech - He gets the nomination.
118 “You come to us and tell us that the great cities are in favor of the gold standard. We reply that the great cities rest upon our broad and fertile prairies. Burn down your cities and leave our farms, and your cities will spring up again as if by magic. But destroy our farms, and the grass will grow in the streets of every city in the country.”
119 “You shall not press down upon the brow of labor this crown of thorns, you shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold.”
120 Democratic Platform endorses a 16:1 ratio for silver purchase. Conservative Democrats hoped for McKinley victory.Most Populists endorsed Bryan, who goes on a national speaking tour.
121 Gold Bugs give money to Hanna and McKinley, who runs a "front porch" campaign McKinley defeats Bryan for Presidency.