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Biology Notes Scientific Methods Part 1 Pages 3-11.

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1 Biology Notes Scientific Methods Part 1 Pages 3-11

2 Standard ___ Identify what is science, what clearly is not science, and what superficially resembles science Essential Questions 1. What makes something alive? 1.1

3 I. What is Biology? Biology = the study of _____ For an organism to be considered _________, it must possess certain _________________ life alive characteristics

4 A. Characteristics of Living Things 1. All living things are made up of _______ Red blood cells Plant Cells Foot fungus cells cells

5 Cell = a collection of living ________ enclosed by a barrier that separates the cell from its ____________ A cell is the smallest unit of _________ considered to be _____  Creatures with only one cell are called ____________ while creatures with more than one cell are called ____________ matter alive matter unicellular multi-cellular environment

6 Unicellular or Multi-Cellular???? unicellular plankton multi-cellular bird multi-cellular flower unicellular gut bacteria

7 2. All living things _____________ Sexual Reproduction = creating a new __________ from cells of ___ different ________ e.g. reproduce organism2 humans, fish, plants, lions, etc. parents

8 Asexual Reproduction = creating a new __________ from only ____ parent e.g. organismone Hydra (budding); most unicellular organisms

9 3. All living things are based on a _________ code (____) Organisms created by __________reproduction are identical to the single parent. They have the same _______ or genetic code. Organisms created by _______reproduction are similar to ______ parents because the offspring have DNA from each parent. genetic DNA asexual sexual DNA both

10 4. All living things ______ and ________ Unicellular organisms typically only ______ in size whereas multi-cellular organisms grow and _________ Differentiation = the process of development where a single cell will ____________ and the groups of cell will take on different _______ in the body e.g. grow develop multiply jobs Nerve cells, brain cells, etc. grow develop

11 Q. Do unicellular organisms grow and develop? A.Unicellular organisms only grow Q. Do multi-cellular organisms grow and develop? A. Multi-cellular organisms both grow and develop.


13 5. All living things need sources of _______ Energy is needed to complete many of life’s __________ e.g. What is the ultimate source of energy for life on Earth? ____________ energy functions Cellular respiration (all organisms) / Photosynthesis (plants) the sun

14 Metabolism = the series of __________ to build or break materials in order to obtain ___________ necessary for life ___________ e.g. reactions energy functions Eat food → broken down for energy (humans, animals, etc.)

15 6. All living things __________ to their environment Stimulus = any signal to which an organism can respond  Stimuli can either external or __________ e.g. respond internal sun to plants → grow (external) / low blood sugar → hunger → eat (internal)

16 7. All living things maintain _______________ Homeostasis = the ability of an organism to keep a ________ internal environment e.g. homeostasis stable body temperature / heart rate / sugar level

17 8. As a group, living things __________ Evolution = the change of an organism over _____ in order to adapt to a ___________ environment and _________ e.g. change time changingsurvive giraffe necks

18 B. Hierarchy of Biology Biologists can group systems and organisms to study or ____________ progressively from the simple to the most ________ investigate complex

19 1. Subatomic Particles = _________, neutrons, and electrons that make up atoms 2. Atom = the basic unit of _______ e.g. 3. Molecule = a group of atoms that is the smallest unit of chemical ___________ e.g. 4. Organelle = groups of molecules that perform the same tasks make up the different parts of a ____ e.g. protons matter compounds water, DNA, proteins, salt oxygen atom, hydrogen atom cell nucleus, cell membrane, mitochondria

20 4. Cell = smallest living piece of __________ e.g. 5. Tissues = groups of similar cells that perform the same ___________ e.g. 6. Organ = groups of _________ that perform similar functions e.g. matter nerve cell, liver cell function smooth tissue, connective tissue tissues brain, heart

21 7. Organ System = groups of ________ that perform similar functions e.g. 8. Organism = an individual living ______ that has multiple and interacting organ systems e.g. 9. Population = groups of __________ that live in the same ______ e.g. organs digestive, circulatory being plant, person, worm organisms area students at Sandalwood / herd of cows / flock of sheep

22 10. Community = different ___________ that live in a defined area i.e. 11. Ecosystem (Biome) = the community plus all the ___________ parts (climate) i.e. 12. Biosphere = all ecosystems on _________ populations Jax. Beach = surfers, turtles, fish, seaweed, etc. non-living tundra, rainforest, savanna Earth


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