Presentation on theme: "Public Finance: Introduction Fundamentals of Finance – Lecture 8."— Presentation transcript:
Public Finance: Introduction Fundamentals of Finance – Lecture 8
Outline of the Lecture Individuals and Government Efficiency, Markets, and Governments Externalities and Government Policies Public Goods
Individuals and Government Public finance - introduction
Government Governments are organizations formed to exercise authority over the actions of persons who live together in a society and to provide and finance essential services. Political Institutions are rules and generally accepted procedures that evolve for determining what government does and how government outlays are financed. – Majority rule – Representative government
The Allocation between Private and Government Resources Private – Food – Housing – Cars – Clothing Government – National Defense – Public Schools – Police
A Production-Possibility Frontier C G2G2 G1G1 0 B A MX2X2 X1X1 Government Goods and Services per Year Private Goods and Services per Year
Distribution of Government Goods and Services Nonmarket rationing: – Prices and willingness to pay those prices are not applicable to goods such as national defense.
The Mixed Economy Markets and Politics Pure Market Economy – Virtually all goods and services are supplied by for-profit private firms. – Supply and demand determine price.
Circular Flow in the Mixed Economy Input Market Output Market GovernmentHouseholdsFirms Subsidies Taxes, fees, charges Government Services Taxes, fees, charges Government Services Income Support & Subsidies Money Resources Money Goods & Services Money Goods & Services Money Resources
How Much Government is Enough? The question of how much government is enough is an important one in any society. It is the tradeoff between public and private goods. When government gets bigger, it comes at the expense of less private consumption.
Efficiency, Markets, and Government Public finance - introduction
Positive and Normative Economics Positive Economics explains “what is” without making judgments about the appropriateness of “what is.” Normative Economics: designed to formulate recommendations on what should be.
Normative Evaluation of Resource Use: The Efficiency Criterion Pareto Optimality: The efficiency criterion is satisfied when resources are used over any given period of time in such a way as to make it impossible to increase the well-being of any one person without reducing the well-being of any other person.
Marginal Conditions for Efficiency Total Social Benefit Total Social Cost Net Benefit = TSB – TSC Maximum Net Benefit occurs where MSB = MSC
Efficient Output Price, Benefit, and Cost Loaves of Bread per Month 0 A B Total Social Benefit and Cost MSC MSB TSC TSB 2.00 = P 1.50 = P* 1.00 = P 2 Q* Q 1 = 10,000Q* = 15,000Q 2 = 20,000 B C E A D Z TSB – TSC
Conditions under which the Market is Pareto Optimal All productive resources are privately owned. All transactions take place in markets and in each separate market many competing sellers offer a standardized product to many competing buyers. Economic Power is dispersed in the sense that no buyers or sellers alone can influence prices. All relevant information is freely available to buyers and sellers. Resources are mobile and may be freely employed in any enterprise.
When Does the Market Interaction Fail to Achieve Efficiency? Monopoly Taxes Subsidies
Loss in Net Benefits Due to Monopolies Price, Benefit, and Cost Loss in Net Benefits Output per Month 0 QMQM MSB = P MSC M D = MSB MSC MR A E B Q* The monopolistic firm maximizes profits by producing Q M units per month. At that output level, the marginal social benefit of the good exceeds its marginal social cost. Additional net benefits equal to the area ABE are possible if output were increased to Q*units per month.
Taxes and Efficiency Price Billions of Message Units per Month 6 5 4 E' E B Demand = MSB New Supply: MPC + T > MSC Supply : MSC = MPC 034
Subsidies and Efficiency Price Bushels of Wheat per Year 0 5 4 3 A E C Demand = MSB Q* Supply = MSC QSQS
Market Failure: A Preview of the Basis for Government Activity Government intervention may be warranted if there is: Monopoly power; Effects of market transactions on third parties (i.e. externalities); Lack of a market for a good where MSB>MSC (i.e. a public good); Incomplete information about goods being sold; An unstable market.
Equity vs. Efficiency Equity: perceived fairness of an outcome. Horizontal equity is achieved when equal people are treated equally. Vertical equity is achieved when people are treated fairly along a socio-economic continuum.
Utility Possibility Curve Annual Well-Being of A 0 UAUA UA2UA2 UA1UA1 Annual Well-Being of B Z X UBUB E1E1 E2E2 E3E3 UB1UB1 UB2UB2
Positive Analysis Trade-off Between Equity and Efficiency When making choices about public policy issues we are usually faced with the inevitable situation that you make one person worse off while making another better off. (Taxes must be paid by some in order that public goods can be purchased and these benefits accrue to others.) Some economists attempt to overcome this with the Compensation Criteria.
Compensation Criteria An attempt is made to compare the dollar value of the gain to the gainers and the dollar value of the loss to the losers. If the gainers gain more than the losers lose then the gainers can pay the losers enough to compensate the losers for their loss. Everyone can be made at least as well off as they were without the change as long as there is compensation.
Externalities and Government Policies Public finance - introduction
Externalities Externalities are costs or benefits of market transactions not reflected in prices. –Negative externalities are costs to third parties. –Positive externalities are benefits to third parties.
Externalities and Efficiency The marginal external cost is the value of the cost to third parties from the production or consumption of an additional unit of a good. This occurs when there is a negative externality.
Market Equilibrium, A Negative Externality and Efficiency D = MSB S = MPC MPC + MEC = MSC 10 Price, Benefit, and Cost Tons of Paper Per Year (Millions) 110 105 100 4.55 A B G 10
Implications of Negative Externalities Market equilibrium occurs where MPC = MSB Efficiency Requires that MSC = MPC + MEC = MSB
Positive externalities The marginal external benefit is the value of the benefit to third parties from an additional unit of production of consumption of a good. This occurs when there is a positive externality.
Market Equilibrium, A Positive Externality and Efficiency S = MSC MPB + MEB = MSB H Z U V Price, Benefit, and Cost Inoculations Per Year (Millions) 10 25 30 45 1012 0
Internalization of Externalities An externality can be internalized if there is a policy that causes market participants to account for the costs of benefits of their actions.
Corrective Taxes to Negative Externalities Setting a tax equal to the MEC will internalize a negative externality.
A Corrective Tax Price, Benefit, and Cost Tons of Paper Per Year (Millions) 100 5 110 105 95 4.5 D = MSB S = MPC A S’ = MPC + T = MSC Tax Revenue = Total External Costs T Net Gains in Well-Being G B
Results of a Corrective Tax Socially optimal levels of production are achieved. The tax revenue is sufficient to pay costs to third parties.
Using a Corrective Tax The greenhouse effect and a “Carbon Tax” –If it is accepted that the greenhouse effect is caused by burning carbon-based fuels, a carbon tax can be imposed to limit greenhouse gasses to their socially optimal levels. –It is called a carbon tax because the amount of the tax would depend on the amount of carbon in the fuel.
Corrective Subsidies Setting a subsidy equal to MEB will internalize a positive externality
Subsidy Payments A Corrective Subsidy i i Y D = MPB D' = MPB + $20 = MSB S = MSC Price, Benefit, and Cost (Dollars) Inoculations per Year (Millions) 0 45 30 25 10 12 Z V R X U
Coase's Theorem By establishing rights to use resources government can internalize externalities when transactions or bargaining costs are zero.
Limitations of Coase’s Theorem Transactions costs are not zero in many situations. However you allocate the property right, the distribution of income is affected.
Public Goods are goods for which exclusion is impossible. –One example is National Defense: A military that defends its citizenry from invasion does so for the entire public. Public Goods
Characteristics of Public Goods Nonexclusion: The inability of a seller to prevent people from consuming a good when they do not pay for it. Nonrivalry: The characteristic that if one person “consumes” a good, another person’s pleasure is not diminished nor is another person prevented from consuming it.
Pure Public Goods and Pure Private Goods Pure Public Good: There is no ability to exclude and there is no rivalry for the benefits. Pure Private Good: There is a clear ability to exclude and there is rivalry for the benefits.
Marginal Costs of Consuming and Producing a Pure Public Good Cost Number of Consumers 0 200 Marginal Cost of Allowing an Additional Person to Consume a Given Quantity of Pure Public Good 1
Marginal Cost of Producing a Pure Public Good is always positive! Marginal Costs of Consuming and Producing a Pure Public Good Units of a Pure Public Good per Year Cost MC = AC 200 0
Security Guards per Week Demand For A Pure Public Good Z 1 Z 2 Z 3 Z4Z4 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 Marginal Benefit 0 12345 D A = MB A D B = MB B D C = MB C D A = MB A