Presentation on theme: "BASIC PUNCTUATION RULES COMMAS, END MARKS, QUOTATION MARKS, COLONS, SEMI-COLONS AND APOSTROPHES."— Presentation transcript:
BASIC PUNCTUATION RULES COMMAS, END MARKS, QUOTATION MARKS, COLONS, SEMI-COLONS AND APOSTROPHES
Commas and independent clauses (review) 1) Use a period between the two sentences and capitalize the first word of the second sentence. Ex: I had a golden retriever named Tara. She died when she was 12 years old. 2) Separate the two independent clauses (sentences) with a semi-colon. Then, begin the second sentence with a lower case letter. Ex: I have a golden retriever named Tara; she dies when she was 12 years old. 3) Use a comma and a conjunction to create a compound sentence. The comma should go before the conjunction. Conjunctions are joining words such as and, or, but, so, and because. Ex: I had a golden retriever named Tara, but now I have two mixed breeds named Roxie and Abby.
Commas to separate independent clauses and items in a series 1. Do not use a comma to separate two complete sentences (independent clauses) without a conjunction. Ex: My dad called me last night, he wanted to know if I was going to visit this summer. WRONG Ex: My dad called me last night, and he wanted to know if I was going to visit this summer. RIGHT 2. Use commas to separate items in a series such as three nouns, three adjectives, etc. Ex: Three of my favorite bands include U2, The White Stripes, and The Chipmunks. * The last comma after Stripes is called an Oxford comma. It isn’t always used by today’s writers. Whether you use it or not, stay consistent.
Comma use for parenthetical phrases 1. Use a comma before and after a phrase that does not add necessary meaning to the sentence. In other words, it could be left out altogether. Ex: My best friend, who is also a teacher, lives in Casper, Wyoming. Her profession is not the point of the sentence. 2. Do not use commas to separate a phrase if the phrase adds necessary meaning to a sentence. Ex: Students who miss more than nine class periods might be audited. Not all students will be audited; only those who miss more than nine classes.
Comma use for introductory words and phrases Use commas to separate an introductory word, phrase, or clause that modifies the rest of the sentence. Ex: After driving for 13 hours, we finally made it to Denver, Colorado. However, we still had more driving to do to get to Casper, Wyoming.
Use of Colons 1. Use a colon to introduce a list. Ex: Please take out the following items: your book, a piece of paper, and a pencil. 2. Be sure that you don’t use a colon after a verb or a preposition. Ex: I am a member of: the art club, the music club and the ASL club. WRONG Ex: I am a member of the following clubs: art club, music club and ASL club. RIGHT 3. You may use a colon between two independent clauses if the second one explains or illustrates the first. Ex: I have too much homework tonight: I have 30 math problems to do.
Quotation Marks and Dialogue 1. Use quotation marks for dialogue. Look at the following examples: Exs: “Are you cold?” asked my friend. (The question mark is inside the quotation mark, and a period is after the identifier. An exclamation mark is treated the same way.) “No, I have a coat if I need one,” I answered. (A comma goes inside the ending quotation mark, and the period goes after the identifier.) “Okay, I was just wondering.” (The period goes inside the ending quotation mark if there is no identifier.)
Quotation Marks and Titles Use quotation marks to indicate titles of songs, short stories, most poems, and articles in magazines and newspapers. Underline or put in italics titles of CDs, books, and names of magazines or newspapers. Ex: I used the article, “Why Students Are Dropping Out,” by Mary Jones, to gather evidence for my research paper. The article appeared in yesterday’s Arizona Republic. My favorite song on the album Born to Die, by Lana Del Rey, is “Blue Jeans”.
Apostrophes and other stuff... 1. Apostrophes: Don’t forget to use apostrophes with contractions such as don’t, won’t, it’s, they’re, couldn’t, and wouldn’t. The apostrophe goes where the missing letter is. 2. Cities and States: Always separate cities and states from the rest of the sentence with commas. Ex: I live in Mesa, Arizona, and I have for 30 years. 3. Dates: When mentioning dates in writing, separate the day and the year from the rest of the sentence. Ex: I was born on January 27, 1961, and that makes me an Aquarian.