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By: Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY.

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Presentation on theme: "By: Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY."— Presentation transcript:

1 By: Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY

2 Earlier Explorations 1.Silk Road Spice Trade 2.Chinese Admiral Zheng He & the Ming “Treasure Fleet” 3.A New Player  Europe Nicolo, Maffeo, & Marco Polo, 1271 Expansion becomes a state enterprise  monarchs had the authority & the resources. Better seaworthy ships.

3 Admiral Zheng He 1371-1435 Each ship was 400’ long and 160’ wide!

4 Zheng He’s Voyages In 1498, Da Gama reached Calcutta, China’s favorite port!

5 A Map of the Known World, pre- 1492 How do we know that the cartographer had limited info??

6 Motives for European Exploration 1.Luxury Goods  by-pass intermediaries to get to Asia. 2.Renaissance  curiosity about other lands and peoples. 3.Monarchs seeking new sources of revenue. 4.Technological advances. 5.Fame and fortune.

7 New Maritime Technologies Astrolabe From Where?? Arabia Better Maps [created by cartographers] Sextant Mariner’s Compass From Where?? China

8 New Weapons Technology Rudder Triangular Lateen Sails Shallow Hull Gunpowder and guns!

9 Prince Henry, the Navigator School for Navigation in Portugal

10 Portuguese Maritime Empire 1.Exploring the west coast of Africa. 2.Vasco da Gama, 1498. Calicut.

11 Christofo Colon [1451-1506]

12 Columbus’ Four Voyages

13 Other Voyages of Exploration

14 Ferdinand Magellan & the First Circumnavigation of the World: Early 16 c

15 Atlantic Explorations Looking for “El Dorado”

16 The Treaty of Tordesillas, 1494 & The Pope’s Line of Demarcation Divided the world into two parts, one for Spain, one for Portugal

17 Fernando Cortez The First Spanish Conquests: The Aztecs Montezuma II vs.vs.

18 The Death of Montezuma II

19 Mexico Surrenders to Cortez

20 Francisco Pizarro The First Spanish Conquests: The Incas Atahualpa vs.

21 Slaves Working in a Brazilian Sugar Mill

22 The “Columbian Exchange”  Squash  Avocado  Peppers  Sweet Potatoes  Turkey  Pumpkin  Tobacco  Quinine  Cocoa  Pineapple  Cassava  POTATO  Peanut  TOMATO  Vanilla  MAIZE  Syphilis  Olive  COFFEE BEAN  Banana  Rice  Onion  Turnip  Honeybee  Barley  Grape  Peach  SUGAR CANE  Oats  Citrus Fruits  Pear  Wheat  HORSE  Cattle  Sheep  Pigs  Smallpox  Flu  Typhus  Measles  Malaria  Diptheria  Whooping Cough  Liquor  GUNS

23 Cycle of Conquest & Colonization Explorers Conquistadores Missionaries Permanent Settlers Official European Colony!

24 Treasures from the Americas!

25 Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade

26 The Slave Trade 1.Existed in Africa before the coming of the Europeans. 2.Portuguese replaced European slaves with Africans. Sugar cane & sugar plantations. 3.Between 16 c & 19 c, about 10 million Africans shipped to the Americas.

27 Slave Ship “Middle Passage”

28 “Coffin” Position Below Deck

29 African Captives Thrown Overboard Sharks followed the slave ships!

30 European Empires in the Americas

31 The Influence of the Colonial Catholic Church Guadalajara Cathedral Guadalajara Cathedral Our Lady of Guadalupe Our Lady of Guadalupe Spanish Mission Spanish Mission

32 New Colonial Rivals 1.Portugal lacked the numbers and wealth to dominate trade in the Indian Ocean. 2.Dutch arrive in India in 1595. 3.English start sailing, as well.

33 New Colonial Rivals

34 Impact of European Expansion 1.Native populations ravaged by disease. 2.Influx of gold, and especially silver, into Europe 3.New products introduced across the continents [“Columbian Exchange”]. 4.Deepened European rivalries.

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