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Archea and Eubacteria Archea Kingdom Eubacteria Kingdom

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1 Archea and Eubacteria Archea Kingdom Eubacteria Kingdom
All prokaryotic single celled organisms. No Peptidoglycan in cell wall Most ancient and extreme They live in the harshest environments Methanogens (anaerobic), thermoacidophiles (hot) and halophiles (salty) Eubacteria Kingdom True bacteria, all prokaryotic single celled Have Peptidoglycan in cell wall Classified by their shape and gram staining

2 Shapes and Examples Sphere- Cocci, can occur in chains Streptococcus Pneumoniae which can cause strep throat or Scarlet fever, or grapelike clusters Staphylococcus aureus which can cause skin infections and Toxic Shock syndrome Rod- Bacillus ex Escherichia coli (E.coli), Lactobacilli which can cause tooth decay or one strain makes Sourdough bread, other bacilli can cause botulism, typhoid fever, and anthrax Spiral- Spirilla comes in 3 shapes 1. Vibro which is curved caused Cholera, 2. Spirillum (thick spiral), and 3. Spirochete (thin spiral) ex. Treponema pallidum causes Syphilis and another strain can cause Lyme disease

3 Essential Bacteria: ecosystems depend on these small organisms
Cyanobacteria- photosynthetic/producers, building blocks of most aquatic food webs Nitrogen- Fixing Bacteria- symbiotic relationship with plants, they help them absorb nitrogen from the soil. Helpful: fermentation, digestion, biotechnology, nitrogen fixing, decomposers, oxygen producers Antibiotics kill bacteria by destroying the cell wall, gram negative have an extra lipid layer that prevents the antibiotics from entering the cell.

4 Review of Bacteria All bacteria: Some Bacteria: Reproduce asexually
Single celled Have cell wall Single strand of DNA Some Bacteria: Autotrophic Heterotrophic Some move by flagella, slime, spiral motion Some produce endospores which allow them to go dormant during hostile conditions Some produce toxins

5 Kingdom Protista Kingdom of Mostly single celled organisms
Categorized by their likeness to 3 other kingdoms All Eukaryotic some Autotrophic and some Heterotrophic

6 Algae- Plant like Protist
Algae or Plant-like, Autotrophic, classified by pigment with no cell wall, come form elaborate colonies and multicellular structures (kelp and seaweed) Chrysophyta- Golden Algae ex diatoms Pyrrophyta- bioluminescent/glow ex. Dinoflagellates Euglenaphyta- ex Euglena Rhodophyta- red Phaeophyta- brown, seaweed and kelp Chlorophyta- green, ex Volvox, Spirogyra

7 Images of algae Volvox Spirogyra Red algae Seaweed Kelp Diatoms

8 Protozoa or Animal like Protist
Protozoa or Animal-like, classified by mode of movement Sarcodina ex. Amoeba- move by pseudopodia “false foot” Ciliophora ex Paramecium- move by cilia, tiny hairs Zoomastigina ex Trypanosoma (African Sleeping Sickness) moves by flagella Sporozoa, are the parasitic animal like protista, include Plasmodium which causes Malaria

9 Images of Protozoa Amoeba Paramecium Trypanosoma

10 Fungus-like Protista Fungus-like are all Heterotrophic with no cell wall, absorbing nutrients directly through cell membrane Include Plasmodium or Slime Molds and Downy Mildews

11 Kingdom Fungi All Eukaryotic, multicellular, heterotrophs (saprotrophs or detrivores living off dead and decaying organisms or decomposers), cell wall made of chitin (type of protein), and classified by reproductive structures. Mycoses is the term for Fungal Infection, Fungus destroys the cells around the infection site, to fight fungal infection you have to destroy the cell wall Fungi are important part of an ecosystem because they recycle nutrients/ decomposers

12 Classifications of Fungi
Club Fungi – Basidiomycota , Basidia, ex Mushrooms Sac Fungi- Ascomycota, Asci, ex. Truffles, Morels,Yeast, and Athletes Foot Fungus Zygote Fungi – Zygomycota, Sporangia, ex. Bread molds Imperfect- Deuteromycota, reproduce asexually, ex Penicillian Lichen- Mycophycophyta, symbiotic relationship between fungus and photosynthetic cells of cyanobacteria or algae.

13 Images of Fungi

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