Memory Levels of Memory A) Sensory : Records information from the senses for only a few seconds Encoding depends on attention
Memory Types of memory B) Short-term memory : Holds information for up to 15 or 20 seconds. Rehearsal helps information stay longer Short term memory can store about 7 ungrouped items.
Memory Test your short-term memory How many of the following ordered numbers can you remember ? You will have 5 seconds to memorize the following digit numbers. Mistakes in two consecutive rows represent the limit of short- term memory.
Memory Types of Memory C) Long-Term Memory : Items that are important to you or have meaning are stored in long-term memory. We can retain countless amounts of information, however recall might limit memory.
Memory Long term memory is sorted into two categories: Declarative (Facts) Episodic Semantics Procedural (How-to)
Memory Improving Recall Ascribe personal meaning to memories Encoding specificity principle (context and state) Spacing effect
Memory Dreams Night Bed Blanket Comfortable Moon Cloud Rest Pillow Dark You have 30 seconds, remember as many of the following words as possible:
Memory Now write down all the words that you remembered How many people remembered the words dreams, night, and bed? How many people remembered the words rest, pillow, and dark?
Memory Serial Position effect Primacy effect: Rehearse more often, and therefore transfer to long-term memory Recency effect: Still present in short-term memory, has not been ‘bumped-out’.
Memory How many people remembered the word sleep?
Memory Forgetting: Retrograde amnesia: Memory loss for events prior to the onset of amnesia. (Example: Alzheimer’s) Anterograde amnesia: Memory loss for events that occur after the initial onset of amnesia.
Memory Case Study: ‘H.M’ Remembers all events and skills learned before the accident. Normal individual ‘living in the past’