Presentation on theme: "The Building of Global Empires"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Building of Global Empires Chapter 32The Building of Global Empires
2 QUIZ!!Take out a BLANK sheet of paperNumber that piece of paper 1-5
3 #1In 1871 , Cecil Rhodes, the British imperialist and industrialist, traveled to south Africa to find a climate that would relieve his tuberculosis. By the time he was 35, Rhodes had almost completely monopolized ________________ mining in south Africa and controlled 90% of the world’s __________________ production. a. gold, gold b. diamonds, diamonds c. diamonds, gold d. Gold, diamonds
4 #2Name the colony which was named after Cecil Rhodes. Hint – it was annexed 10 years after Bechuanaland Hint – It gained its freedom between 1965 and 1980 HINT – it is NOT Rhode Island
5 #3The Sepoy Mutiny in 1857 threatened the British empire in India. Though the mutiny could be blamed on a number of reasons, what was the primary cause of this revolt?a. Sepoy military units were slaughtering men, women, and childrenb. Sepoy regiments protested the back-pay that was owed to themc. Sepoy troops refused to use “offensive” rifle cartridgesd. British generals were forcing Indian estate owners to break up their large tracts of land through the use of Sepoy troops
6 #4Which of the following countries was present at the Berlin Conference of , but yet was NOT interested in colonizing the continent of Africa? a. The United States b. France c. Germany d. Belgium
7 #5Samoa, French Polynesia, and many Melanesian and Micronesian islands were sources of copra – dried coconut, which produced high-quality vegetable oil for the manufacture of soap, candles, and lubricants. New Caledonia had rich veins of nickel, and many small Pacific islands had abundant deposits of guano. What is guano used for? a. Food b. Bullets c. Fertilizer d. Water purification
8 Warm UpIn 10 minutes, create a 2-column table listing as many positive and negative outcomes of colonization.
9 Simulation!Explain the ways in which the first group of students represented the country of Africa?What parallels can you draw between our 6 random “countries” in class and the actual European countries that colonized Africa?Hypothesize what will happen to the African people and European countries respectively after the initial colonization efforts succeeded.
15 The “White Man’s Burden” Rudyard Kipling ( )Duty to bring order and enlightenment to distant landsFrench: mission civilisatriceTake up the White Man's burden--Send forth the best ye breed--Go bind your sons to exileTo serve your captives' need;To wait, in heavy harness,On fluttered folk and wild--Your new-caught, sullen peoples,Half-devil and half-child.In patience to abide,To veil the threat of terrorAnd check the show of pride;By open speech and simple,An hundred times made plain,To seek another's profitAnd work another's gain.The savage wars of peace--Fill full the mouth of Famine,And bid the sickness cease;And when your goal is nearestThe end for others sought,Watch Sloth and heathen FollyBring all your hope to nought.No iron rule of kings,But toil of serf and sweeper--The tale of common things.The ports ye shall not enter,The roads ye shall not tread,Go make them with your living,And mark them with your dead.Take up the White Man's burden,And reap his old reward:The blame of those ye better,The hate of those ye guard--The cry of hosts ye humor(Ah, slowly!) toward the light;--"Why brought ye us from bondage,Our loved Egyptian night?"Ye dare not stoop to less--Nor call too loud on FreedomTo cloak your weariness;By all ye cry or whisper,By all ye leave or do,The silent, sullen peoplesShall weigh your Gods and you.Have done with childish days--The lightly proffered laurel,The easy ungrudged praise.Comes now, to search your manhoodThrough all the thankless years,Cold, edged with dear-bought wisdom,The judgment of your peers!
16 White Man’s BurdenMany Europeans justified their actions because they believed that Africans were unable to govern themselves. They subscribed to a belief of “White Man’s Burden”, meaning that it was the European’s duty to civilize, educate, and convert the inhabitants of their colonies.
17 Response QuestionsWhat, according to Kipling, is the “White Man’s Burden?”According to Kipling, what is the impact of imperialism upon the people in European colonies?According to Kipling, what role do the people native to Asia and Africa play in their countries’ improvement?Using your answers to the above, compose a thesis statement from Kipling’s point of view about imperialism in Asia and Africa.
18 Take up the White Man’s burden— Send forth the best ye breed— And reap his old reward:The blame of those ye betterThe hate of those ye guard—The cry of hosts ye humour(Ah slowly) to the light:"Why brought ye us from bondage,“Our loved Egyptian night?”Take up the White Man’s burden-Have done with childish days-The lightly proffered laurel,The easy, ungrudged praise.Comes now, to search your manhoodThrough all the thankless years,Cold-edged with dear-bought wisdom,The judgment of your peers!Take up the White Man’s burden—Send forth the best ye breed—Go send your sons to exileTo serve your captives' needTo wait in heavy harnessOn fluttered folk and wild—Your new-caught, sullen peoples,Half devil and half childTake up the White Man’s burdenIn patience to abideTo veil the threat of terrorAnd check the show of pride;By open speech and simpleAn hundred times made plainTo seek another’s profitAnd work another’s gain
19 Domestic Political Considerations Crises of industrialismPressure from nascent socialismImperial policies distract proletariat from domestic politicsCecil Rhodes: imperialism alternative to civil war
21 Weaponry Muzzle-loading muskets Mid-century: breech-loading rifles Reduce reloading time1880s: Maxim gun, 11 rounds per second
22 The Military Advantage Battle of Omdurman (near Khartoum on Nile), 1898Five hours of fightingBritish: six gunboats, twenty machine gunsBritish force lost a few hundred men; thousands of Sudanese killed
23 Communications Correspondence Telegraph 1830 Britain-India: 2 years After Suez Canal, 2 weeksTelegraph1870s, development of submarine cablesBritain-India: 5 hours
24 British Empire in India East India CompanyMonopoly on India tradeOriginal permission from Mughal emperorsMughal empire declines after death of Aurangzeb, 1707
28 Sepoy Revolt, 1857Newly issued rifles had cartridges in wax paper greased with animal fatProblem for Hindus: beefProblem for Muslims: porkSmall-scale rebellion ignites general anti-British revolutionBritish gained upper hand in late 1857
29 British Imperial Rule In response to the rebellion, Britain: Abolishes Mughal empireExiles emperor to BurmaAbolishes East India CompanyEstablishes direct rule of India by British government
30 British Rule in India Organization of agriculture Crops: tea, coffee, opiumStamp of British culture on Indian environment
31 Get out a half sheet of paper and something to write with! Warm-UpGet out a half sheet of paper and something to write with!
32 #11. This proclamation, established in the 19th century, was used in the 20th century to justify imperialism and intervention in hemispheric affairs.
33 #2What was the global effect of the ending of the Russo-Japanese War?
34 #3How did people apply Social Darwinism to society?
35 #4This reform group was a forum for educated Indians to communicate their views on public affairs to colonial officials. Representatives from all parts of the subcontinent aired grievances about Indian poverty, the transfer of wealth from India to Britain, trade and tariff policies that harmed Indian businesses, the inability of colonial officials to provide effective relief for regions stricken by drought or famine, and British racism toward Indians.
36 #5Which of the following territories was not gained by the U.S. from the Spanish American War?GuamPhilippinesCubaHawaii
37 Imperialism in Central Asia British, French, Russians complete for central AsiaFrance drops out after NapoleonRussia active after 1860s in Tashkent, Bokhara, Samarkand; and approached IndiaThe “Great Game”: Russian vs. British intrigue in AfghanistanPreparation for imperialist warRussian revolution of 1917 forestalled war
38 Imperialism in Southeast Asia Spanish: PhilippinesDutch: Indonesia (Dutch East Indies)British establish presence from 1820sConflict with kings of Burma (Myanmar) 1820s, established colonial authority by 1880sThomas Stamford Raffles founds Singapore for trade in Strait of MelakaBase of British colonization in Malaysia, 1870s-1880sFrench: Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos,Encouraged conversion to Christianity
40 The Scramble for Africa (1875-1900) French, Portuguese, Belgians, and English competing for “the dark continent”Britain establishes strong presence in Egypt, RhodesiaSuez CanalRhodesian gold, diamonds
41 Rewriting African History Ancient AfricaImplications for justification of imperialist ruleEuropean exploration of rivers (Nile, Niger, Congo, Zambesi)Information on interior of AfricaKing Leopold II of Belgium starts Congo Free State, commercial venturesTakes control of colony in 1908, renamed Belgian Congo
44 South African (Boer) War 1899-1902 Dutch East India establishes Cape Town (1652)Farmers (Boers) follow to settle territory, later called AfrikanersCompetition and conflict with indigenous Khoikhoi and Xhosa peoples
45 South African (Boer) War 1899-1902 British takeover in 1806, slavery a major issue of conflictAfrikaners migrate eastward in the Great Trek, overpower Ndebele and Zulu resistance with superior firepowerEstablish independent republicsBritish tolerate this until gold is discoveredWhite-white conflict, black soldiers and laborersAfrikaners concede in 1902; 1910, integrated into Union of South Africa
47 The Berlin West Africa Conference (1884-1885) Fourteen European states, United StatesNo African states presentRules of colonization: any European state can take “unoccupied” territory after informing other European powersEuropean firepower dominates AfricaExceptions: Ethiopia fights off Italy (1896); Liberia a dependency of the U.S.
49 Systems of Colonial Rule Concessionary companiesPrivate companies get large tracts of land to exploit natural resourcesCompanies get freedom to tax, recruit labor: horrible abusesProfit margin minimalDirect rule: France“Civilizing mission”Chronic shortage of European personnel; language and cultural barriersFrench west Africa: 3,600 Europeans rule 9 million
51 Indirect Rule Frederick D. Lugard (Britain, 1858-1945) The Dual Mandate in British Tropical Africa (1922)Use of indigenous institutionsDifficulty in establishing tribal categories, imposed arbitrary boundaries
53 Simulation!Explain the ways in which the first group of students represented the country of Africa?What parallels can you draw between our 6 random “countries” in class and the actual European countries that colonized Africa?Hypothesize what will happen to the African people and European countries respectively after the initial colonization efforts succeeded.
55 European Imperialism in Australia and New Zealand English use Australia as a penal colony from 1788Voluntary migrants follow; gold discovered 1851Smallpox, measles devastate nativesTerritory called terra nullius: “land belonging to no one”New Zealand: natives forced to sign Treaty of Waitangi (1840), placing New Zealand under British “protection”
57 European Imperialism in the Pacific Islands Commercial outpostsWhalers seeking portMerchants seeking sandalwood, sea slugs for sale in ChinaMissionaries seeking soulsBritish, French, German, American powers carve up Pacific islandsTonga remains independent, but relies on Britain
58 U.S. ImperialismPresident James Monroe warns Europeans not to engage in imperialism in western hemisphere (1823)The Monroe Doctrine: all Americas a U.S. Protectorate1867 purchased Alaska from Russia1875 established protectorate over Hawai`iLocals overthrow queen in 1893, persuade U.S. to acquire islands in 1898
59 Spanish-Cuban-American War (1898-1899) U.S. declares war in Spain after battleship Maine sunk in Havana harbor, 1898Takes possession of Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam, PhilippinesU.S. intervenes in other Caribbean, Central American lands; occupies Dominican Republic, Nicaragua, Honduras, HaitiFilipinos revolt against Spanish rule, later against U.S. rule
64 The Panama CanalPresident Theodore Roosevelt (in office ) supports insurrection against Colombia (1903)Rebels win, establish state of PanamaU.S. gains territory to build canal, Panama Canal ZoneRoosevelt Corollary of Monroe DoctrineU.S. right to intervene in domestic affairs of other nations if U.S. investments threatened
65 Early Japanese Expansion Resentment over unequal treaties of 1860s1870s, colonized northern region: Hokkaido, Kurile Islands, southern Okinawa, and Ryukyu Islands as well1876, Japanese purchase warships from Britain, dominate KoreaSino-Japanese War ( ) over Korea results in Japanese victoryRusso-Japanese War ( ) also ends in Japanese victory
66 Economic Legacies of Imperialism Colonized states encouraged to exploit natural resources rather than build manufacturing centersEncouraged dependency on imperial power for manufactured goods made from native raw productIndian cottonIntroduction of new cropsTea in Ceylon
67 Imperialism and Migration during the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Century
68 Labor Migrations Europeans move to temperate lands Work as free cultivators, industrial laborers32 million to the U.S.,Africans, Asians, and Pacific islanders move to tropical/subtropical landsIndentured laborers, manual laborers2.5 million between 1820 and 1914
69 Colonial Conflict Thousands of insurrections against colonial rule Tanganyika Maji Maji rebellion against Germans ( )Rebels sprinkle selves with magic water (maji-maji) as protection against modern weapons; 75,000 killed“Scientific” racism developedCount Joseph Arthur de Gobineau ( )Combines with theories of Charles Darwin ( ) to form pernicious doctrine of “social Darwinism”
70 Nationalism and Anticolonial Movements Ram Mohan Roy ( ), Bengali called “father of modern India”Reformers call for self-government, adoption of selected British practices (e.g. ban on sati)Influence of Enlightenment thought, often obtained in European universitiesIndian National Congress formed 18851916, joins with All-India Muslim League
71 Group AssignmentNumbered 1-5 Each group gets a Chapter to review for our test! On your chart paper, make a list of the MAIN IDEAS of the chapter. Organize that list into 2 columns: Related to the past/predicting the future (Do not focus on the small details, you can re- read those later…look for the big pictures ideas!)
72 The Development of American and Japanese Imperialism The question of the developing American and Japanese imperialism is one that deserves more detail. How were the United States and Japan able to reach the status of imperialist nations so quickly? Was there some fundamental difference in their approach to colonization as compared to the Europeans’ approach? You might want to go back and discuss a little Japanese history and set the stage for the rise of Japanese nationalism. Excerpts from the History of Great Japan might be useful. The role of the United States as an imperialist nation in this context makes an essential counterbalance for American students. Had the United States been an imperialist nation from its origin? Was the period of western expansion just an early, localized version of imperialism? Students also tend to latch on to the Monroe Doctrine as a symbol of American anticolonialism without any sense of the downside of the policy. Finally, this examination of American and Japanese imperialism sets up later confrontations between the two nations. Both countries, from opposite sides of the Pacific, began to expand, and it was only a matter of time before they “bumped” into each other. Their problems certainly go back a lot further than 1941
73 Geography LessonThis chapter can be confusing to students (especially students who struggle with geography). You need to spend some time at the map— or use transparencies—to make sense of all of the locations discussed in the chapter. Any discussion of imperialism can come off remarkably Eurocentric, and the problem is magnified if the students have no idea of the location and nature of the different areas. African colonization is central in this instance because it happened so quickly. Twenty percent of the world’s landmass was swallowed up within a quarter century. Take some time to explain the different regions of Africa and which European states were involved in each area. What were the Europeans looking for? This discussion is also a great opportunity to delve into the Berlin Conference and its implications. Discuss the different techniques of the Europeans in regard to conquest and rule. All these issues will be repeated when it comes time to discuss decolonization and nation building in Africa.
74 Theories of Imperialism Imperialism is such a natural topic—and there are so many great excerpts in the textbook—that it should not be difficult to spark discussion. Consider Cecil Rhodes’s statement: “We are the finest race in the world and the more of the world we inhabit, the better it is for the human race.” Granted it’s a classic example of British arrogance, but what would have led the English to believe it? What were the reasons? Were the British really any different from any other imperial power at any time in the world? Ask students to think of other imperial powers that might have believed and acted in a similar fashion. Qianlong pointed out to George III that: “Our Celestial Empire possesses all things in prolific abundance and lacks no product within its own borders. There was therefore no need to import the manufactures of outside barbarians.” Was there something more to the imperialism of the second half of the nineteenth century? This discussion offers a good opportunity to bring in samples from Rudyard Kipling’s “The White Man’s Burden” (see Textbook: Sources from the Past: Rudyard Kipling on the White Man’s Burden). There is a reason why it is such a traditional choice. It clearly spells out the European justification for imperialism. The first eight lines are usually enough to sum up Kipling’s point. Ask students to sum up Kipling’s view of the colonies. What was his view of the “white man’s burden”? What makes this piece especially useful, obviously, is that it was written for the Americans and their new colony of the Philippines. What was the Filipino response? Did the Americans need any inspiration to take up the white man’s burden? Ask the students if the Americans had already been practicing a form
75 The Role of Racism in Imperialism The chapter has a great section on the racism that was part of the explosion of imperialism. Ask students to consider the ideas of Gobineau and Spencer (in the section on Scientific Racism). Is it as this point that the Europeans “crossed the line” with regard to earlier forms of imperialism? There is a profound difference between conquering barbarians and ruling over sub-humans. Try to take this topic beyond the boundaries of imperialism. Connect it, for instance, with the ideas of Darwin and the rise of science. Social Darwinism was, and in some cases remains, a powerful force. If we accept Darwin’s theory where the animal kingdom is concerned, why not for human society? Students need to, and usually want to, explore the differences, and this allows you a good opportunity to point out the limits of scientific reasoning. What was the danger in this type of thinking? Look for specific examples in the twentieth century. How would this more insidious negative nationalism play out in World War I, for instance, or afterward?