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The Building of Global Empires

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1 The Building of Global Empires
Chapter 32 The Building of Global Empires

2 QUIZ!! Take out a BLANK sheet of paper Number that piece of paper 1-5

3 #1 In 1871 , Cecil Rhodes, the British imperialist and industrialist, traveled to south Africa to find a climate that would relieve his tuberculosis. By the time he was 35, Rhodes had almost completely monopolized ________________ mining in south Africa and controlled 90% of the world’s __________________ production. a. gold, gold b. diamonds, diamonds c. diamonds, gold d. Gold, diamonds

4 #2 Name the colony which was named after Cecil Rhodes. Hint – it was annexed 10 years after Bechuanaland Hint – It gained its freedom between 1965 and 1980 HINT – it is NOT Rhode Island

5 #3 The Sepoy Mutiny in 1857 threatened the British empire in India. Though the mutiny could be blamed on a number of reasons, what was the primary cause of this revolt? a. Sepoy military units were slaughtering men, women, and children b. Sepoy regiments protested the back-pay that was owed to them c. Sepoy troops refused to use “offensive” rifle cartridges d. British generals were forcing Indian estate owners to break up their large tracts of land through the use of Sepoy troops

6 #4 Which of the following countries was present at the Berlin Conference of , but yet was NOT interested in colonizing the continent of Africa? a. The United States b. France c. Germany d. Belgium

7 #5 Samoa, French Polynesia, and many Melanesian and Micronesian islands were sources of copra – dried coconut, which produced high-quality vegetable oil for the manufacture of soap, candles, and lubricants. New Caledonia had rich veins of nickel, and many small Pacific islands had abundant deposits of guano. What is guano used for? a. Food b. Bullets c. Fertilizer d. Water purification

8 Warm Up In 10 minutes, create a 2-column table listing as many positive and negative outcomes of colonization.

9 Simulation! Explain the ways in which the first group of students represented the country of Africa? What parallels can you draw between our 6 random “countries” in class and the actual European countries that colonized Africa? Hypothesize what will happen to the African people and European countries respectively after the initial colonization efforts succeeded.

10 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Imperialism in Asia, ca. 1914 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

11 The Idea of Imperialism
Term dates from nineteenth century In popular discourse by 1880s Military imperialism Later, economic and cultural varieties U.S. imperialism

12 Motivations for Imperialism
Military Political Economic European capitalism Religious Demographic Criminal populations Dissident populations

13 Manifest Destiny Discovery of natural resources
Exploitation of cheap labor Expansion of markets Limited

14 Geopolitical Considerations
Strategic footholds Waterways Supply stations Imperial rivalries

15 The “White Man’s Burden”
Rudyard Kipling ( ) Duty to bring order and enlightenment to distant lands French: mission civilisatrice Take up the White Man's burden-- Send forth the best ye breed-- Go bind your sons to exile To serve your captives' need; To wait, in heavy harness, On fluttered folk and wild-- Your new-caught, sullen peoples, Half-devil and half-child. In patience to abide, To veil the threat of terror And check the show of pride; By open speech and simple, An hundred times made plain, To seek another's profit And work another's gain. The savage wars of peace-- Fill full the mouth of Famine, And bid the sickness cease; And when your goal is nearest The end for others sought, Watch Sloth and heathen Folly Bring all your hope to nought. No iron rule of kings, But toil of serf and sweeper-- The tale of common things. The ports ye shall not enter, The roads ye shall not tread, Go make them with your living, And mark them with your dead. Take up the White Man's burden, And reap his old reward: The blame of those ye better, The hate of those ye guard-- The cry of hosts ye humor (Ah, slowly!) toward the light;-- "Why brought ye us from bondage, Our loved Egyptian night?" Ye dare not stoop to less-- Nor call too loud on Freedom To cloak your weariness; By all ye cry or whisper, By all ye leave or do, The silent, sullen peoples Shall weigh your Gods and you. Have done with childish days-- The lightly proffered laurel, The easy ungrudged praise. Comes now, to search your manhood Through all the thankless years, Cold, edged with dear-bought wisdom, The judgment of your peers!

16 White Man’s Burden Many Europeans justified their actions because they believed that Africans were unable to govern themselves. They subscribed to a belief of “White Man’s Burden”, meaning that it was the European’s duty to civilize, educate, and convert the inhabitants of their colonies.

17 Response Questions What, according to Kipling, is the “White Man’s Burden?” According to Kipling, what is the impact of imperialism upon the people in European colonies? According to Kipling, what role do the people native to Asia and Africa play in their countries’ improvement? Using your answers to the above, compose a thesis statement from Kipling’s point of view about imperialism in Asia and Africa.

18 Take up the White Man’s burden— Send forth the best ye breed—
And reap his old reward: The blame of those ye better The hate of those ye guard— The cry of hosts ye humour (Ah slowly) to the light: "Why brought ye us from bondage, “Our loved Egyptian night?” Take up the White Man’s burden- Have done with childish days- The lightly proffered laurel, The easy, ungrudged praise. Comes now, to search your manhood Through all the thankless years, Cold-edged with dear-bought wisdom, The judgment of your peers! Take up the White Man’s burden— Send forth the best ye breed— Go send your sons to exile To serve your captives' need To wait in heavy harness On fluttered folk and wild— Your new-caught, sullen peoples, Half devil and half child Take up the White Man’s burden In patience to abide To veil the threat of terror And check the show of pride; By open speech and simple An hundred times made plain To seek another’s profit And work another’s gain

19 Domestic Political Considerations
Crises of industrialism Pressure from nascent socialism Imperial policies distract proletariat from domestic politics Cecil Rhodes: imperialism alternative to civil war

20 Technology and Imperialism
Transportation Steamships Railroads Infrastructure Suez Canal ( ) Panama Canal ( )

21 Weaponry Muzzle-loading muskets Mid-century: breech-loading rifles
Reduce reloading time 1880s: Maxim gun, 11 rounds per second

22 The Military Advantage
Battle of Omdurman (near Khartoum on Nile), 1898 Five hours of fighting British: six gunboats, twenty machine guns British force lost a few hundred men; thousands of Sudanese killed

23 Communications Correspondence Telegraph 1830 Britain-India: 2 years
After Suez Canal, 2 weeks Telegraph 1870s, development of submarine cables Britain-India: 5 hours

24 British Empire in India
East India Company Monopoly on India trade Original permission from Mughal emperors Mughal empire declines after death of Aurangzeb, 1707

25 Home of a Wealthy Family in Calcutta

26 British Conquest Protection of economic interests through political conquest “Doctrine of lapse” British and Indian troops (sepoys)

27 British Colonial Soldiers

28 Sepoy Revolt, 1857 Newly issued rifles had cartridges in wax paper greased with animal fat Problem for Hindus: beef Problem for Muslims: pork Small-scale rebellion ignites general anti-British revolution British gained upper hand in late 1857

29 British Imperial Rule In response to the rebellion, Britain:
Abolishes Mughal empire Exiles emperor to Burma Abolishes East India Company Establishes direct rule of India by British government

30 British Rule in India Organization of agriculture
Crops: tea, coffee, opium Stamp of British culture on Indian environment

31 Get out a half sheet of paper and something to write with!
Warm-Up Get out a half sheet of paper and something to write with!

32 #1 1. This proclamation, established in the 19th century, was used in the 20th century to justify imperialism and intervention in hemispheric affairs.

33 #2 What was the global effect of the ending of the Russo-Japanese War?

34 #3 How did people apply Social Darwinism to society?

35 #4 This reform group was a forum for educated Indians to communicate their views on public affairs to colonial officials. Representatives from all parts of the subcontinent aired grievances about Indian poverty, the transfer of wealth from India to Britain, trade and tariff policies that harmed Indian businesses, the inability of colonial officials to provide effective relief for regions stricken by drought or famine, and British racism toward Indians.

36 #5 Which of the following territories was not gained by the U.S. from the Spanish American War? Guam Philippines Cuba Hawaii

37 Imperialism in Central Asia
British, French, Russians complete for central Asia France drops out after Napoleon Russia active after 1860s in Tashkent, Bokhara, Samarkand; and approached India The “Great Game”: Russian vs. British intrigue in Afghanistan Preparation for imperialist war Russian revolution of 1917 forestalled war

38 Imperialism in Southeast Asia
Spanish: Philippines Dutch: Indonesia (Dutch East Indies) British establish presence from 1820s Conflict with kings of Burma (Myanmar) 1820s, established colonial authority by 1880s Thomas Stamford Raffles founds Singapore for trade in Strait of Melaka Base of British colonization in Malaysia, 1870s-1880s French: Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, Encouraged conversion to Christianity

39 Imperialism in Africa, ca. 1914

40 The Scramble for Africa (1875-1900)
French, Portuguese, Belgians, and English competing for “the dark continent” Britain establishes strong presence in Egypt, Rhodesia Suez Canal Rhodesian gold, diamonds

41 Rewriting African History
Ancient Africa Implications for justification of imperialist rule European exploration of rivers (Nile, Niger, Congo, Zambesi) Information on interior of Africa King Leopold II of Belgium starts Congo Free State, commercial ventures Takes control of colony in 1908, renamed Belgian Congo

42 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

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44 South African (Boer) War 1899-1902
Dutch East India establishes Cape Town (1652) Farmers (Boers) follow to settle territory, later called Afrikaners Competition and conflict with indigenous Khoikhoi and Xhosa peoples

45 South African (Boer) War 1899-1902
British takeover in 1806, slavery a major issue of conflict Afrikaners migrate eastward in the Great Trek, overpower Ndebele and Zulu resistance with superior firepower Establish independent republics British tolerate this until gold is discovered White-white conflict, black soldiers and laborers Afrikaners concede in 1902; 1910, integrated into Union of South Africa

46 Village around a Kraal

47 The Berlin West Africa Conference (1884-1885)
Fourteen European states, United States No African states present Rules of colonization: any European state can take “unoccupied” territory after informing other European powers European firepower dominates Africa Exceptions: Ethiopia fights off Italy (1896); Liberia a dependency of the U.S.

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49 Systems of Colonial Rule
Concessionary companies Private companies get large tracts of land to exploit natural resources Companies get freedom to tax, recruit labor: horrible abuses Profit margin minimal Direct rule: France “Civilizing mission” Chronic shortage of European personnel; language and cultural barriers French west Africa: 3,600 Europeans rule 9 million

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51 Indirect Rule Frederick D. Lugard (Britain, 1858-1945)
The Dual Mandate in British Tropical Africa (1922) Use of indigenous institutions Difficulty in establishing tribal categories, imposed arbitrary boundaries

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53 Simulation! Explain the ways in which the first group of students represented the country of Africa? What parallels can you draw between our 6 random “countries” in class and the actual European countries that colonized Africa? Hypothesize what will happen to the African people and European countries respectively after the initial colonization efforts succeeded.

54 Imperialism in Oceania, ca. 1914

55 European Imperialism in Australia and New Zealand
English use Australia as a penal colony from 1788 Voluntary migrants follow; gold discovered 1851 Smallpox, measles devastate natives Territory called terra nullius: “land belonging to no one” New Zealand: natives forced to sign Treaty of Waitangi (1840), placing New Zealand under British “protection”

56 Australian Aborigine

57 European Imperialism in the Pacific Islands
Commercial outposts Whalers seeking port Merchants seeking sandalwood, sea slugs for sale in China Missionaries seeking souls British, French, German, American powers carve up Pacific islands Tonga remains independent, but relies on Britain

58 U.S. Imperialism President James Monroe warns Europeans not to engage in imperialism in western hemisphere (1823) The Monroe Doctrine: all Americas a U.S. Protectorate 1867 purchased Alaska from Russia 1875 established protectorate over Hawai`i Locals overthrow queen in 1893, persuade U.S. to acquire islands in 1898

59 Spanish-Cuban-American War (1898-1899)
U.S. declares war in Spain after battleship Maine sunk in Havana harbor, 1898 Takes possession of Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam, Philippines U.S. intervenes in other Caribbean, Central American lands; occupies Dominican Republic, Nicaragua, Honduras, Haiti Filipinos revolt against Spanish rule, later against U.S. rule

60 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

61 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

62 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

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64 The Panama Canal President Theodore Roosevelt (in office ) supports insurrection against Colombia (1903) Rebels win, establish state of Panama U.S. gains territory to build canal, Panama Canal Zone Roosevelt Corollary of Monroe Doctrine U.S. right to intervene in domestic affairs of other nations if U.S. investments threatened

65 Early Japanese Expansion
Resentment over unequal treaties of 1860s 1870s, colonized northern region: Hokkaido, Kurile Islands, southern Okinawa, and Ryukyu Islands as well 1876, Japanese purchase warships from Britain, dominate Korea Sino-Japanese War ( ) over Korea results in Japanese victory Russo-Japanese War ( ) also ends in Japanese victory

66 Economic Legacies of Imperialism
Colonized states encouraged to exploit natural resources rather than build manufacturing centers Encouraged dependency on imperial power for manufactured goods made from native raw product Indian cotton Introduction of new crops Tea in Ceylon

67 Imperialism and Migration during the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Century

68 Labor Migrations Europeans move to temperate lands
Work as free cultivators, industrial laborers 32 million to the U.S., Africans, Asians, and Pacific islanders move to tropical/subtropical lands Indentured laborers, manual laborers 2.5 million between 1820 and 1914

69 Colonial Conflict Thousands of insurrections against colonial rule
Tanganyika Maji Maji rebellion against Germans ( ) Rebels sprinkle selves with magic water (maji-maji) as protection against modern weapons; 75,000 killed “Scientific” racism developed Count Joseph Arthur de Gobineau ( ) Combines with theories of Charles Darwin ( ) to form pernicious doctrine of “social Darwinism”

70 Nationalism and Anticolonial Movements
Ram Mohan Roy ( ), Bengali called “father of modern India” Reformers call for self-government, adoption of selected British practices (e.g. ban on sati) Influence of Enlightenment thought, often obtained in European universities Indian National Congress formed 1885 1916, joins with All-India Muslim League

71 Group Assignment Numbered 1-5 Each group gets a Chapter to review for our test! On your chart paper, make a list of the MAIN IDEAS of the chapter. Organize that list into 2 columns: Related to the past/predicting the future (Do not focus on the small details, you can re- read those later…look for the big pictures ideas!)

72 The Development of American and Japanese Imperialism
The question of the developing American and Japanese imperialism is one that deserves more detail. How were the United States and Japan able to reach the status of imperialist nations so quickly? Was there some fundamental difference in their approach to colonization as compared to the Europeans’ approach? You might want to go back and discuss a little Japanese history and set the stage for the rise of Japanese nationalism. Excerpts from the History of Great Japan might be useful. The role of the United States as an imperialist nation in this context makes an essential counterbalance for American students. Had the United States been an imperialist nation from its origin? Was the period of western expansion just an early, localized version of imperialism? Students also tend to latch on to the Monroe Doctrine as a symbol of American anticolonialism without any sense of the downside of the policy. Finally, this examination of American and Japanese imperialism sets up later confrontations between the two nations. Both countries, from opposite sides of the Pacific, began to expand, and it was only a matter of time before they “bumped” into each other. Their problems certainly go back a lot further than 1941

73 Geography Lesson This chapter can be confusing to students (especially students who struggle with geography). You need to spend some time at the map— or use transparencies—to make sense of all of the locations discussed in the chapter. Any discussion of imperialism can come off remarkably Eurocentric, and the problem is magnified if the students have no idea of the location and nature of the different areas. African colonization is central in this instance because it happened so quickly. Twenty percent of the world’s landmass was swallowed up within a quarter century. Take some time to explain the different regions of Africa and which European states were involved in each area. What were the Europeans looking for? This discussion is also a great opportunity to delve into the Berlin Conference and its implications. Discuss the different techniques of the Europeans in regard to conquest and rule. All these issues will be repeated when it comes time to discuss decolonization and nation building in Africa.

74 Theories of Imperialism
Imperialism is such a natural topic—and there are so many great excerpts in the textbook—that it should not be difficult to spark discussion. Consider Cecil Rhodes’s statement: “We are the finest race in the world and the more of the world we inhabit, the better it is for the human race.” Granted it’s a classic example of British arrogance, but what would have led the English to believe it? What were the reasons? Were the British really any different from any other imperial power at any time in the world? Ask students to think of other imperial powers that might have believed and acted in a similar fashion. Qianlong pointed out to George III that: “Our Celestial Empire possesses all things in prolific abundance and lacks no product within its own borders. There was therefore no need to import the manufactures of outside barbarians.” Was there something more to the imperialism of the second half of the nineteenth century? This discussion offers a good opportunity to bring in samples from Rudyard Kipling’s “The White Man’s Burden” (see Textbook: Sources from the Past: Rudyard Kipling on the White Man’s Burden). There is a reason why it is such a traditional choice. It clearly spells out the European justification for imperialism. The first eight lines are usually enough to sum up Kipling’s point. Ask students to sum up Kipling’s view of the colonies. What was his view of the “white man’s burden”? What makes this piece especially useful, obviously, is that it was written for the Americans and their new colony of the Philippines. What was the Filipino response? Did the Americans need any inspiration to take up the white man’s burden? Ask the students if the Americans had already been practicing a form

75 The Role of Racism in Imperialism
The chapter has a great section on the racism that was part of the explosion of imperialism. Ask students to consider the ideas of Gobineau and Spencer (in the section on Scientific Racism). Is it as this point that the Europeans “crossed the line” with regard to earlier forms of imperialism? There is a profound difference between conquering barbarians and ruling over sub-humans. Try to take this topic beyond the boundaries of imperialism. Connect it, for instance, with the ideas of Darwin and the rise of science. Social Darwinism was, and in some cases remains, a powerful force. If we accept Darwin’s theory where the animal kingdom is concerned, why not for human society? Students need to, and usually want to, explore the differences, and this allows you a good opportunity to point out the limits of scientific reasoning. What was the danger in this type of thinking? Look for specific examples in the twentieth century. How would this more insidious negative nationalism play out in World War I, for instance, or afterward?

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