2 European Middle Ages, 500–1200 CHAPTER 13 The Power of the Church SECTION 1Charlemagne Unites Germanic KingdomsSECTION 2Feudalism in EuropeSECTION 3The Age of ChivalrySECTION 4The Power of the ChurchThese are my notes for slide 2
3 The Formation of Western Europe 800–1500 CHAPTER 14SECTION 1Church Reform and the CrusadesThese are my notes for slide 2
4 OBJECTIVESCORE OBJECTIVE: Describe the political structures and systems that changed Europe during the Middle Ages and the Formation of Western EuropeObjective 6.3: Describe the Christian Church’s structure and influence on EuropeTHEME:
5 CHAPTER 13 SECTION 4 THE POWER OF THE CHURCH Church leaders and political leaders compete for power and authority.
6 CHURCH organization The Structure of the Church WRITE THIS DOWN!The Structure of the ChurchPower within Church is organized by status; pope is supreme authorityClergy — religious officials — includes bishops, priestsBishops supervise priests, settle Church disputesReligion as a Unifying ForceReligion important in Middle Ages; shared beliefs bond peopleClergy supervises sacraments — rites to achieve salvationVillage church is place of worship and celebration
7 CHURCH LAW Popes have power over political leaders through threat of: The Church has system of justice to guide people’s conductAll medieval Christians expected to obey canon law —Church lawCanon law governs marriages and religious practicesPopes have power over political leaders through threat of:Excommunication - banishment from Church, denial of salvationInterdiction — king’s subjects denied sacraments and servicesKings and emperors expected to obey pope’s commandsWRITE THIS DOWN!
8 The holy roman empire Otto I is crowned king of Germany in 936 WRITE THIS DOWN!Otto I is crowned king of Germany in 936Limits strength of nobles with help of clergyGains support of bishops and abbotsInvades Italy on pope’s behalfpope crowns him emperor in 962Signs of Future ConflictsOtto’s German-Italian lands become Holy Roman EmpireHoly Roman Empire is the strongest European power until about 1100
10 papal powerPope Gregory VII bans lay investiture — kings appointing Church officialsHenry IV orders pope to resign; Gregory VIII excommunicates Henry (1076 A.D.)Henry goes to Canossa, Italy, to beg Gregory for forgivenessGregory forgives Henry, but lay investiture problem is not solvedConcordat of Worms: compromise - pope appoints bishops, emperor can veto appointmentCompromise occurs in 1122 Worms, GermanyWRITE THIS DOWN!
11 CHAPTER 14 SECTION 1 the crusades The Catholic Church undergoes reform andlaunches Crusades against Muslims.
13 The crusades The Beginning of the Crusades Goals of the Crusades WRITE THIS DOWN!The Beginning of the CrusadesIn 1093, Byzantine emperor asks for help fighting the TurksPope Urban II issues a call for a Crusade — a “holy war”Goals of the CrusadesPope wants to reclaim Jerusalem for Christians & save ByzantiumKings use the Crusades to send away knights who cause troubleYounger sons hope to earn land or win glory by fightingLater, merchants join Crusades to try to gain wealth through tradePope promises Crusaders who die a place in heaven
15 EARLY crusadesWRITE THIS DOWN!First Crusade: three armies gather at Constantinople in 1097First Crusade is the only successful oneCrusaders capture Jerusalem in 1099Captured lands divided into four Crusader statesMuslims take back Edessa in 1144; Second Crusade fails to retake itIn 1187 Saladin — Muslim leader and warrior — retakes Jerusalem
17 Later crusades Third Crusade led by three powerful rulers WRITE THIS DOWN!Third Crusade led by three powerful rulersKings: Richard, Phillip II, & Frederick IEnglish King Richard the Lion-Hearted leads 3rd CrusadeIn 1192 Richard and Saladin make peace after many battlesSaladin keeps Jerusalem but allows Christians to enterThe Children’s CrusadeIn 1212 thousands of children die or are enslaved in failed crusadeFrench group led by 12-year old of 30,000 sails for JerusalemGerman group of 20,000 returns home from Rome with 2,000
18 SPANISH CRUSADEMost of Spain controlled by Moors, a Muslim peopleChristians fight Reconquista — drive Muslims from Spain, 1100 to 1492Spain has Inquisition — court to suppress heresy; expels non-ChristiansWRITE THIS DOWN!
20 LASTING EFFECTSCrusades show power of Church in convincing thousands to fightWomen who stay home manage the estate and business affairsMerchants expand trade, bring back many goods from Southwest AsiaFailure of later crusades weakens pope and nobles, strengthens kingsCrusades create lasting bitterness between Muslims and Christians
21 CHURCH POWER — Assessment When ___________ was crowned emperor of Germany and Italy by the Pope in 962; it created the Holy Roman Empire.Henry IVPhilip IIBarbarossaOtto IWhich statement best describes the clergy?Religious monks who travel for missionary workKnights on horseback who defend the manorReligious officials like bishops and priestsNobility who give land to vassals
22 CHURCH POWER — Assessment When ___________ was crowned emperor of Germany and Italy by the Pope in 962; it created the Holy Roman Empire.Henry IVPhilip IIBarbarossaOtto IWhich statement best describes the clergy?Religious monks who travel for missionary workKnights on horseback who defend the manorReligious officials like bishops and priestsNobility who give land to vassals
23 CHURCH POWER — Assessment What was one negative effect of the crusades that has continued to the present?Weakening of the feudal nobilityTrade between Europe and AsiaHostility between Muslims and ChristiansStrengthening of papal authorityLay Investiture isThe practice of hiring church officials for battlethe ability of kings to appoint bishops in their landsa payment to help the church growthe practice of selling positions in the church
24 CHURCH POWER — Assessment What was one negative effect of the crusades that has continued to the present?Weakening of the feudal nobilityTrade between Europe and AsiaHostility between Muslims and ChristiansStrengthening of papal authorityLay Investiture isThe practice of hiring church officials for battlethe ability of kings to appoint bishops in their landsa payment to help the church growthe practice of selling positions in the church
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