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By: Veronica Martinez and Paola Rios Health Class Spartans 2014.

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1 By: Veronica Martinez and Paola Rios Health Class Spartans 2014

2  The skin is the largest organ of your body.  It is part of the integumentary system, which includes all the external coverings of your body, like skin, nails, and hair.

3  Skin covers your bones and muscles and protects them from the external environment.  It keeps your body from drying out in the sunlight and wind.  It also protects the cells and tissues under the skin.  Is the first line of defense against dirt, bacteria, and viruses that might enter your body.

4 The skin has special sensory receptors that detect texture. It also detects temperature and senses pain. The more sensory receptors in one area the more sensitive it is.

5  Skin helps control body temperature.  Sweating is one way skin lowers your body temperature. As sweat evaporates, excess thermal energy leaves the body and skin cools.  Another way is by releasing thermal energy from blood vessels, which is why your face turns red while exercising.  This happens because blood vessels enlarge.

6  When your skin is exposed to sunlight it can make vitamin D.  Your body needs vitamin D to help it absorb calcium and phosphorous and promote the growth of bones.  Vitamin D is usually added to milk and is found in some types of fish.

7  Normal cellular processes produce waste products and the skin eliminates these wastes.  Water, salts, and other waste products are removed through the pores.  You might notice when you sweat.

8  Instructions:  Touch the back of your hand with an ice cube in a plastic bag.  Now do the same to the back of your knee. Questions:  Which area was more sensitive to cold?  How do you think the skin senses temperature?  How does sensitivity to temperature protect the body?

9  Instructions:  Put on one plastic bag in your hand.  Leave it on for about 5 min. Questions:  What happened inside the bag?  What might have caused this?

10  Is the outmost layer of skin and the only one who comes in contact with the outside environment.  Is thin but tough. The epidermis on your eyelids in thinner than a sheet of paper.  The epidermis cells are constantly shed and replaced. Epidermis produces melanin. Melanin is a pigment that protects the body by absorbing some of the Sun’s damaging ultraviolet rays.

11  The dermis is a thick layer of the skin that gives skin strength, nourishment, and flexibility.  It contains sweat glands, blood vessels, nerves, hair follicles, and muscles.  When the muscles in the dermis contract, you get goose bumps.

12  The innermost layer of skin insulates the body, acts as protective padding, and stores energy.  It is sometimes called fatty layer.  It can be very thin or very thick, depending on its location on the body.


14  A bruise is an injury where your blood vessels in the skin are broken, but the skin is not cut or opened.  The broken blood vessels release blood into the surrounding tissue, they change color as they heal.

15  When you break one or more layers of skin, it is called a cut.  The blood you release will usually thicken and form a scab over the cut.  The scab prevents outside substances from entering the body.  Skin heals by producing new skin cells that repair the cut.  Some cuts are too large to heal, if that happens you may need to get stitches.

16  Burns do not only occur by touching hot objects.  Burns can also be caused by touching extremely cold objects, chemicals, radiation, electricity, or friction.  There are degrees of burns.

17 BurnSymptoms First degree burn Damages top layer of skin Symptoms: Pain, redness, swelling Usually heals in 5-7 days without scarring

18 BurnSymptoms Second Degree Burn Damages top two layers of skin Symptoms: Pain, redness, swelling, blistering Usually heals in 2-6 weeks with some scarring

19 BurnSymptoms Third degree burn Damages all three layers of skin and sometimes the tissue below skin Symptoms: black or white charred skin, may be temporarily numb due to damaged nerves Heals over months with scarring; might require surgery

20  One important thing you can do for your skin is protect it from sunlight.  By using sunscreen and protective clothing and avoid outside activities during the middle of the day you can protect your skin.  The rays of sunlight can cause permanent damage to the skin, including wrinkles, dry skin, and skin cancer.  You can keep your skin healthy by eating a balanced diet.  You can also apply lotion to your skin to keep it moist and use gentle soap to clean it.

21  Homeostasis is an organism’s ability to maintain steady internal conditions when outside conditions change.  Skin also works with other body systems to maintain homeostasis.  Circulatory system: helps cool the body when it becomes overheated.  Nervous and muscular systems: help the body react to stimuli.



24  Information and photos:  Science Book 

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