# Earth Science with Mr. Smith. What is Science?  Science is a process that uses observations and investigation to gain knowledge about events in nature.

## Presentation on theme: "Earth Science with Mr. Smith. What is Science?  Science is a process that uses observations and investigation to gain knowledge about events in nature."— Presentation transcript:

Earth Science with Mr. Smith

What is Science?  Science is a process that uses observations and investigation to gain knowledge about events in nature.  Life Science: focuses on livings things  Earth Science: focuses on Earth & Space  Physical Science: focuses on matter and energy; comprised of 2 main areas : Chemistry and Physics

Introduction to the Scientific Method

The Scientific Method  An organized set of investigation procedures is called a scientific method.  By using the following procedures, one can investigate a certain problem or phenomena.  The scientific method is the repeatable process by which we do science.

The Scientific Method cont.  Step Step 1: Define and state the problem after asking yourself why or how the problem occurs.  Step 2: Research and gather information concerning the scientific laws, the dangers, and the success and failures of others.  Step 3: Form a hypothesis statement, a testable prediction.

The Scientific Method cont.  Step 4: Test the hypothesis by conducting an experiment.  Step 5: Analyze the experiment by recording observations and organizing the test data.  Step 6: Draw a conclusion from the test data to determine if hypothesis is correct or incorrect. If incorrect, modify the hypothesis and repeat procedure again

Scientific Method Terminology  Variable is any measurable factor (characteristic or attribute) that can have more than a single value.  Independent variable is the factor you manipulate or change during your experiment. It is what you do to the experimental group. Plot on the x-axis.  Dependent variable is what happens to the independent variable as a result the factor you manipulated (changed). It is what you are measuring. Plot on the y-axis.

Scientific Method Terminology cont.  Hypothesis is an educated guess about how things work based upon what you know and observe. It is a statement that can be experimentally shown to be true or false. "If I open the faucet [faucet opening size is the independent variable], then it will increase the flow of water [flow of water is the dependent variable].” "Raising the temperature of a cup of water [temperature is the independent variable] will increase the amount of sugar that dissolves [the amount of sugar is the dependent variable]."

Scientific Method Terminology cont.  Observation is using one’s senses to gather information.  Constant is a factor that does not change when other variables change.  Control group receives no manipulation. It therefore is the standard by which the test results can be compared.  Experimental group receives some kind of manipulation or change in condition.

Scientific Method Terminology cont.  Procedures are the steps used during the experiment.  Conclusion is the summarization of the experiment and results.  Graphs are visual displays of information that help communicate the results of the experiment.  Data is the information collected during the experiment.

Scientific Method Terminology cont.  A Bias occurs when the expectation of the scientist change how the results of an experiment is viewed.  A Model is something which represents a concept which is either very small (the atom), very large (the solar system), or difficult to access the real thing (an eyeball).

Scientific Theories and Laws  A scientific theory is an explanation of things or events based on knowledge gained from many observations and investigations. It is not a guess.  Theories can be modified if new information becomes available.  Example: Evolution is just a Theory.  A scientific Law is a statement about what happens in nature that seems to be true all the time.  Example: The Law of Gravity

Measurements  Standard – an exact quantity that people agree to use to compare measurements.  International Standard of Units (SI)  Each SI unit is composed of either a base unit or a prefix and a base unit Why are standards important? Give an example.

SI Base Units  Length = meter (m)  Mass = kilogram (kg)  Volume = liters (L)  Time = second (s)  Temperature = Kelvin (K)

SI Prefixes to Know  Kilo (k) – 1000 x the base unit  Hecta (h) – 100 x the base unit  Deka (da) – 10 x the base unit  Base Unit  Deci (d) – 1/10 x the base unit  Centi (c) – 1/100 x the base unit  Milli (m) – 1/1000 x the base unit

Length  The distance between two points  Measured in physical science class by the meter stick or ruler  Important to choose the appropriate unit in order to avoid large numbers or lots of decimal places. Example: We would never measure the distance from NC to CA in centimeter- Why?

Volume  Amount of space something takes up  A regular solid can be calculated by: L x W x H  Can use water displacement for irregular solids  Use a graduated cylinder to measure liquid volume  1 mL = 1 cm 3  Amount of space something takes up  A regular solid can be calculated by: L x W x H  Can use water displacement for irregular solids  Use a graduated cylinder to measure liquid volume  1 mL = 1 cm 3

Mass  The measurement of the quantity of matter in an object.  Usually measured with a triple beam balance or an electronic balance. Will the mass of an object be the same on the moon and earth? Explain your answer.

Density  Derived unit : Combination of SI units  Defined as mass per unit volume of a materials  Formula: Density = Mass / Volume

Temperature  Kelvin is the SI unit (NOT DEGREES KELVIN!!)  Absolute zero is the lowest possible temperature (0 K)  Use thermometers to measure temperature in Celsius and convert to Kelvin by adding 273.  °C + 273 = K

 Graph – visual display of information or data  Always include title, labels, and include units!  Line graph – shows any relationship where the dependent variable changes (y-axis) due to a change in the independent variable (x-axis). Graphs

Graphs cont.  Bar Graph – useful for comparing information collected by counting.  Circle Graph or Pie Chart – shows how a fixed quantity is broken down into parts.

Download ppt "Earth Science with Mr. Smith. What is Science?  Science is a process that uses observations and investigation to gain knowledge about events in nature."

Similar presentations