Presentation on theme: "Earth Science with Mr. Smith. What is Science? Science is a process that uses observations and investigation to gain knowledge about events in nature."— Presentation transcript:
What is Science? Science is a process that uses observations and investigation to gain knowledge about events in nature. Life Science: focuses on livings things Earth Science: focuses on Earth & Space Physical Science: focuses on matter and energy; comprised of 2 main areas : Chemistry and Physics
The Scientific Method An organized set of investigation procedures is called a scientific method. By using the following procedures, one can investigate a certain problem or phenomena. The scientific method is the repeatable process by which we do science.
The Scientific Method cont. Step Step 1: Define and state the problem after asking yourself why or how the problem occurs. Step 2: Research and gather information concerning the scientific laws, the dangers, and the success and failures of others. Step 3: Form a hypothesis statement, a testable prediction.
The Scientific Method cont. Step 4: Test the hypothesis by conducting an experiment. Step 5: Analyze the experiment by recording observations and organizing the test data. Step 6: Draw a conclusion from the test data to determine if hypothesis is correct or incorrect. If incorrect, modify the hypothesis and repeat procedure again
Scientific Method Terminology Variable is any measurable factor (characteristic or attribute) that can have more than a single value. Independent variable is the factor you manipulate or change during your experiment. It is what you do to the experimental group. Plot on the x-axis. Dependent variable is what happens to the independent variable as a result the factor you manipulated (changed). It is what you are measuring. Plot on the y-axis.
Scientific Method Terminology cont. Hypothesis is an educated guess about how things work based upon what you know and observe. It is a statement that can be experimentally shown to be true or false. "If I open the faucet [faucet opening size is the independent variable], then it will increase the flow of water [flow of water is the dependent variable].” "Raising the temperature of a cup of water [temperature is the independent variable] will increase the amount of sugar that dissolves [the amount of sugar is the dependent variable]."
Scientific Method Terminology cont. Observation is using one’s senses to gather information. Constant is a factor that does not change when other variables change. Control group receives no manipulation. It therefore is the standard by which the test results can be compared. Experimental group receives some kind of manipulation or change in condition.
Scientific Method Terminology cont. Procedures are the steps used during the experiment. Conclusion is the summarization of the experiment and results. Graphs are visual displays of information that help communicate the results of the experiment. Data is the information collected during the experiment.
Scientific Method Terminology cont. A Bias occurs when the expectation of the scientist change how the results of an experiment is viewed. A Model is something which represents a concept which is either very small (the atom), very large (the solar system), or difficult to access the real thing (an eyeball).
Scientific Theories and Laws A scientific theory is an explanation of things or events based on knowledge gained from many observations and investigations. It is not a guess. Theories can be modified if new information becomes available. Example: Evolution is just a Theory. A scientific Law is a statement about what happens in nature that seems to be true all the time. Example: The Law of Gravity
Measurements Standard – an exact quantity that people agree to use to compare measurements. International Standard of Units (SI) Each SI unit is composed of either a base unit or a prefix and a base unit Why are standards important? Give an example.
SI Base Units Length = meter (m) Mass = kilogram (kg) Volume = liters (L) Time = second (s) Temperature = Kelvin (K)
SI Prefixes to Know Kilo (k) – 1000 x the base unit Hecta (h) – 100 x the base unit Deka (da) – 10 x the base unit Base Unit Deci (d) – 1/10 x the base unit Centi (c) – 1/100 x the base unit Milli (m) – 1/1000 x the base unit
Length The distance between two points Measured in physical science class by the meter stick or ruler Important to choose the appropriate unit in order to avoid large numbers or lots of decimal places. Example: We would never measure the distance from NC to CA in centimeter- Why?
Volume Amount of space something takes up A regular solid can be calculated by: L x W x H Can use water displacement for irregular solids Use a graduated cylinder to measure liquid volume 1 mL = 1 cm 3 Amount of space something takes up A regular solid can be calculated by: L x W x H Can use water displacement for irregular solids Use a graduated cylinder to measure liquid volume 1 mL = 1 cm 3
Mass The measurement of the quantity of matter in an object. Usually measured with a triple beam balance or an electronic balance. Will the mass of an object be the same on the moon and earth? Explain your answer.
Density Derived unit : Combination of SI units Defined as mass per unit volume of a materials Formula: Density = Mass / Volume
Temperature Kelvin is the SI unit (NOT DEGREES KELVIN!!) Absolute zero is the lowest possible temperature (0 K) Use thermometers to measure temperature in Celsius and convert to Kelvin by adding 273. °C + 273 = K
Graph – visual display of information or data Always include title, labels, and include units! Line graph – shows any relationship where the dependent variable changes (y-axis) due to a change in the independent variable (x-axis). Graphs
Graphs cont. Bar Graph – useful for comparing information collected by counting. Circle Graph or Pie Chart – shows how a fixed quantity is broken down into parts.