Presentation on theme: "Learn the Steps of the Scientific Method Explain the difference between dependent and independent variables Define an control group Explain what a valid."— Presentation transcript:
Learn the Steps of the Scientific Method Explain the difference between dependent and independent variables Define an control group Explain what a valid experiment is and how to make a valid experiment more accurate
It is the steps someone takes to identify a question, develop a hypothesis, design and carry out steps or procedures to test the hypothesis, and document observations and findings to share with someone else. In other words, it’s a way to solve a problem.
Identify a problem Gather Information Formulate a hypothesis Design and Experiment Record and Organize Data Analyze Data Draw Conclusions Use conclusions to develop a new hypothesis
Problem/Question Observation/Research Formulate a Hypothesis Experiment Collect and Analyze Results Conclusion Repeat ***
1. Problem/Question 1. Problem/Question: Develop a question or problem that can be solved through experimentation. Ex. Does soil temperature affect plant growth?
Observation/Research 2. Observation/Research: Make observations and research your topic of interest. Use references to do background research Books Journals Magazines Internet TV Videos Interview Experts Become Educated on your topic
Formulate a Hypothesis 3. Formulate a Hypothesis: (Educated Guess) Predict a possible answer to the problem or question. Using an IF, THEN statement Example: IF soil temperatures rise, THEN plant growth will increase.
4. Experiment 4. Experiment: - Develop and follow a procedure. - Include a detailed materials list. - The outcome must be measurable (quantifiable). - EX. The height of the plants in cm
Collect and Analyze Results 5. Collect and Analyze Results: Make Charts/Graphs. Compare and look for trends and patterns using graphs “A picture is worth a thousand words”
Conclusion 6. Conclusion: Include a statement that accepts or rejects the hypothesis and why. Refer to your data in your explanation.
Repeat Experiment 7. Repeat Experiment You must repeat the experiment to make it valid.
**** If your results DO NOT fit your Hypothesis DO NOT CHANGE YOUR DATA. Change your hypothesis and retry your experiment.
Problem/QuestionObservation/Research Formulate a Hypothesis Experiment Collect and Analyze Results Conclusion Communicate the Results
The independent variable is the variable that the scientist changes or manipulates The independent, or manipulated variable, is the variable that can be controlled by the experimenter. It usually includes time (dates, minutes, hours), depth (feet, meters), temperature (Celsius). This variable is ALWAYS graphed on the X axis Examples: The temperature of the soil
The dependent, or responding variable, is the variable that is directly affected by the independent variable. It is the result of what happens because of the independent variable. Is the thing measured in the experiment Changes because of the independent variable “Depends” on the independent variable This variable is ALWAYS graphed on the Y axis. Example: The amount the plant height changes with different soil temperatures The plant height is dependent on the soil temperature ^^^^^
When graphing your data from an experiment always place the independent variable on the X axis (horizontal) and the dependent on the Y axis (vertical).
Examples: All the factors in the experiments that are kept the same Everything except the independent variable Keeps the experiment ‘fair’ The amount of sun each plant gets Type of soil Type of plant Amount of water All plants are the same age
In a scientific experiment, the control is the group that serves as the standard of comparison. The control group is exposed to the same conditions as the experimental group, except for the variable being tested. All experiments must have a control group.
In order for a scientific experiment to be valid it can only have 1 variable. This variable is the part that is being tested. All other parts of the experiment must remain the same or constant Any experiment that has more than 1 variable cannot prove anything and therefore is invalid
To make an experiment more valid: Increase the number of test subjects Repeat the experiment and get the same results Have other people complete your experiment and get the same results (peer review) *****