Presentation on theme: "The History behind the book. A brief history of Nigeria ► 1/3 larger than the state of Texas ► Located on the west coast of Africa – North of the equator."— Presentation transcript:
A brief history of Nigeria ► 1/3 larger than the state of Texas ► Located on the west coast of Africa – North of the equator and south of the Sahara Desert. ► 200 ethnic groups live in present-day Nigeria with their own language, beliefs, and culture
Where Nigeria is located in context to the world and Africa
A brief history of Nigeria ► Three main ethnic groups: 1.Protestant Yoruba located in the west 2.Catholic Igbo (pronounced eee-bow) in the east 3.Muslim Hausa-Fulani in the north Chinua Achebe and the people in his book are Igbo
A brief history of Nigeria Timeline of major events in Nigeria: 17 th -18 th centuries: the British were a major buyer of African slaves 1807: British outlawed slave trade w/in their empire 1861: British occupy Lagos, the present-day capital of Nigeria 1884-85: The Berlin Conference – the British claimed Nigeria as theirs British motivations: political control, religious (Christian) mission, and economic gains – also called European Imperialism called European Imperialism
A brief history of Nigeria ► 1905: a white man rode his bicycle into the village Ahiara (in Igbo region) and was killed by the natives. British forces responded a month later searching the village and killing many natives British created the Bende-Onitsha Hinterland Expedition – a military force created to eliminate Igbo opposition ► 1912: Collective Punishment Ordinance: British would punish an entire village or community for crimes committed by one or more persons against white colonists
A brief history of Nigeria ► While in Nigeria the British: Operated an efficient administrative system Sent young Nigerians to England for education which resulted in the rise of young educated nationalists who wanted independence from Great Britain.
A brief history of Nigeria ► 1947: Nigerians demand independence ► October 1, 1960: became an independent country ► 1963: became a republic--a state in which the supreme power rests in the body of citizens entitled to vote and is exercised by representatives chosen directly or indirectly by them (dictionary.com) The Nigerian Flag
A brief history of Nigeria, cont. 1970-90s: A series of military coups and dictatorships replaced the republic initially set up. 1993: Nigeria held a democratic presidential election followed by another bloodless coup. 1999: The Fourth Republic: Ended 16 years of consecutive military rule, political instability has followed with several presidents elected in loosely democratic elections, marred by fraud. 2013: Current president: Goodluck Jonathan
Culture of West Africa and Nigeria ► Religion: polytheistic which consists of worshipping a combination of ancestors, spirits, a creator god (Chukwu), and a personal god (Chi). People consult with Oracles for decisions in life. Religion is ritualistic – not overly concerned with morality Morality largely decided through tribal traditions and verbal sayings Some Christianity and Islam
Religion cont. ► Chi: the concept of the Chi parallels the western concept of a soul although Chi is more complex. Igbo believed that an individual’s fate is given a Chi by the creator (Chukwu) at the moment of conception ► Before each reincarnation the individual bargains for better circumstances in the next life. Thus, Chi becomes one’s personal god that guides one to fulfill the expected destiny ► A person may be ruled by her Chi, but it is up to her to make the most of her fate.
Culture of West Africa and Nigeria ► The society is patriarchal – to not have power over one’s wife is considered weak. ► Self-sufficiency and hard work are valued ► Strength and courage are also valued
Culture of West Africa and Nigeria ► Secret societies: peoples in western Africa use secret societies as a way of drawing members of different kinship groups into obligatory associations that cut across tribal and family relationships Members are responsible for supervising and regulating the sexual, social, and political conduct of all members of the wider society outside of an immediate kinship or tribe. To carry out this responsibility, high-status society members impersonate important supernatural figures by donning masks and performing in public. One secret kept from the uninitiated is that these masked figures are not the spirits themselves
Culture of West Africa and Nigeria ► Secret Societies cont’d: Membership is automatic on initiation, and all men and women are ordinarily initiated
Culture of West Africa and Nigeria ► Secret Societies: do Secret Societies exist in America?
About the Author Chinua Achebe ► Born on November 16, 1930 ► Raised by Christian parents in the Igbo village of Ogidi in southeastern Nigeria ► He wrote Things Fall Apart – published in 1959 – it is the most widely read book in modern African literature
About the Author Chinua Achebe ► Achebe has continued to write and currently lives in the U.S. ► His novels focus on the traditions of Igbo society, the effect of Christian influences, and the clash of values during and after the colonial era.
3 level 3 questions ► Why do countries dominate and overtake other countries? ► What happens when a person’s pride is challenged? ► How is culture significant in influencing a person’s perspective?