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1 Voluntary Diesel Emission Reduction Programs Steve Albrink Retrofit Program Office of Transportation and Air Quality HD Rule/Retrofit HD Rule/Retrofit.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Voluntary Diesel Emission Reduction Programs Steve Albrink Retrofit Program Office of Transportation and Air Quality HD Rule/Retrofit HD Rule/Retrofit."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Voluntary Diesel Emission Reduction Programs Steve Albrink Retrofit Program Office of Transportation and Air Quality HD Rule/Retrofit HD Rule/Retrofit

2 2 Need for Air Pollution Reduction Fine particles from diesel exhaust can remain in the atmosphere for weeks, and carry over hundreds of miles Diesel exhaust is likely to be carcinogenic to humans Ozone has been shown to reduce yields of vegetables and field crops Clean Air Act requires EPA to take steps to remedy regional haze in 156 pristine Class I areas

3 Highway HDE Program

4 4 Nationwide Heavy-Duty PM Emissions with new standards without new standards Calendar Year

5 5 Nationwide Heavy-Duty NOx Emissions Calendar Year without new standards with new standards

6 6 Estimated Costs and Benefits Health benefits The program will prevent annually: Over 8,300 premature deaths Over 8,300 premature deaths Over 750,000 respiratory illnesses Over 750,000 respiratory illnesses 1.5 million lost work days 1.5 million lost work days Benefits are 16 times greater than costs Benefits are 16 times greater than costs Monetized benefits: $70.3 billion/year Monetized benefits: $70.3 billion/year Compliance costs: $4.3 billion/year Compliance costs: $4.3 billion/year – Estimated at $1,200-1,900 per engine – About 5 cents per gallon of fuel

7 HDE Program Key Elements Applies new NOx and PM standards to heavy-duty engines and vehicles –90%+ emission reductions –Phase-in of NOx standards –Incentives for early technology introduction Reduces diesel fuel sulfur levels nationwideReduces diesel fuel sulfur levels nationwide –Enables use of aftertreatment technology –Highway diesel fuel sulfur cap of 15 ppm –Transitional flexibilities –Small Refiner Flexibility

8 8 Valuable to States States will be counting on heavy-duty diesel emission reductions to meet National Ambient Air Quality Standards. Nonattainment Areas for PM2.5 and 8-hour Ozone will be designated this year.Nonattainment Areas for PM2.5 and 8-hour Ozone will be designated this year. State Implementation Plans (SIP) will include these reductions.State Implementation Plans (SIP) will include these reductions.

9 9 VOLUNTARY DIESEL RETROFIT PROGRAM

10 10 What is the Voluntary Diesel Retrofit Program? A voluntary program designed to install pollution- reducing technology on existing diesel vehicles and equipment A voluntary program designed to install pollution- reducing technology on existing diesel vehicles and equipment –Existing diesel engines can last years –2007 Highway & Proposed Nonroad rules address only future engines We are building a market for clean diesel concepts We are building a market for clean diesel concepts –Accelerating the delivery of ULSD –Forging business partnerships and relationships –Investing EPA resources to accelerate market growth

11 11 The Diesel Retrofit Program works best when: –EPA HQ and Regional offices create partnerships with local leadership –Local leadership is in the best position to: Create expanding retrofit programs (as opposed to a single demo)Create expanding retrofit programs (as opposed to a single demo) Work with local fleet management and decision makersWork with local fleet management and decision makers Know how to secure local and regional fundingKnow how to secure local and regional funding EPA will supply technical support: EPA will supply technical support: –Engine manufacturers –Retrofit manufacturers –Fuel refineries and suppliers Successful Retrofit Program Model

12 12 EPA Funded Projects

13 13 The Role of Diesel Fuel ULSD is becoming more widely available throughout the countryULSD is becoming more widely available throughout the country –Several fuel companies can distribute ULSD today in specific regions The foundation of many retrofit projects will be the fuel supplyThe foundation of many retrofit projects will be the fuel supply –Many technologies require Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD) Fuel –Some can operate on current fuel but can not achieve full emission reduction potential –Generally, PM filter with ULSD achieve PM reductions over 90%

14 14 ULSD Availability

15 15 What is Retrofit Technology? Retrofit technology can be: any change to an engine system above and beyond what is required by EPA regulations that improves the engines emission performance: Catalyst or filterCatalyst or filter Engine upgradeEngine upgrade Early engine replacementEarly engine replacement Use of cleaner fuels or additivesUse of cleaner fuels or additives Idling control equipmentIdling control equipment Combination of aboveCombination of above Retrofit Web site maintains a list of manufacturers and verified technology Retrofit Web site maintains a list of manufacturers and verified technology

16 16 Retrofit Technology Verification Objective: Evaluate the emission reduction effectiveness of retrofit technology - Verification provides stakeholders with confidence that these technologies will achieve quantifiable emission reductions Verification consists of the following: Verification consists of the following: - Appropriate Testing Protocols - Statistical Sampling Methods - Durability Requirements

17 17 14 Technologies Currently EPA-Verified14 Technologies Currently EPA-Verified –DPFs, DOCs, Crankcase Filtration, Emulsified Fuel, Biodiesel, Cetane Enhancers Recent VerificationRecent Verification –Caterpillar, DOC –Engine Control Systems, DPF –Donaldson, DOC & Crankcase Control –Clean Diesel Technology, DOC & Fuel Borne Catalyst Several Verifications in ProcessSeveral Verifications in Process Retrofit Technology Verification

18 Diesel Retrofit Technologies: An Overview Existing emission controls systems can greatly reduce diesel particulate matter (PM) emissionsExisting emission controls systems can greatly reduce diesel particulate matter (PM) emissions –Diesel oxidation catalysts and diesel particulate filters Existing and developing emission control systems can greatly reduce NOx and PM emissionsExisting and developing emission control systems can greatly reduce NOx and PM emissions –Lean NOx catalysts, EGR, SCR and combined systems Technologies to control crankcase emissionsTechnologies to control crankcase emissions Advanced fuelsAdvanced fuels –Low sulfur

19 19 Diesel Retrofit Technologies: An Overview Integrated emission control systems will allow diesel engines to meet future emission challengesIntegrated emission control systems will allow diesel engines to meet future emission challenges Integration will involve the entire vehicle including:Integration will involve the entire vehicle including: –The engine –The emission control system –The fuel

20 20 Diesel Oxidation Catalysts CarbonSOFNOxCOHC CarbonNOxWater Oxidation catalysts oxidize carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HCs) and the soluble organic fraction (SOF) to reduce particulate matter (PM), CO, HCs, and toxic emissions

21 Diesel Oxidation Catalysts Are Efficient and a Proven Technology Hundreds of thousands have been retrofitted since the 1960s on highway, mining, materials handling and construction vehiclesHundreds of thousands have been retrofitted since the 1960s on highway, mining, materials handling and construction vehicles Durabilities in excess of 10,000 hours of operationDurabilities in excess of 10,000 hours of operation Diesel oxidation catalyst control capabilitiesDiesel oxidation catalyst control capabilities –PM 20 to 30% reduction –CO > 40% –HCs > 50%

22 22 Diesel Particulate Filter Technology Trapped Soot Cell Plugs Exhaust In (Soot, CO, HC) Enter Exhaust (CO 2, H 2 O) Out

23 Diesel Particulate Filters Are Efficient and Are Developing an Impressive Track Record Filter control capabilitiesFilter control capabilities –PM 80% to 90% reduction –CO > 75% –HCs > 85%

24 24 Typical test filter – current standardsTypical test filter – current standards Test filter – 2007 standardsTest filter – 2007 standards Unused test filterUnused test filter PM Emissions with Trap

25 Diesel Particulate Filter Retrofit Experience Retrofitting existing diesel engines with diesel particulate filters is an available strategy to reduce emissions including PM, CO, and HCsRetrofitting existing diesel engines with diesel particulate filters is an available strategy to reduce emissions including PM, CO, and HCs A growing number of programs and applications have been successfully completed on highway, non-road and stationary enginesA growing number of programs and applications have been successfully completed on highway, non-road and stationary engines More than 25,000 filter systems have been installed on highway vehiclesMore than 25,000 filter systems have been installed on highway vehicles Retrofit technology development continues to expand the range of applications availableRetrofit technology development continues to expand the range of applications available

26 26 Filter Regeneration Strategy: Some Considerations Application and duty cycleApplication and duty cycle Engine out emissionsEngine out emissions Vehicle/engine conditionVehicle/engine condition Fuel sulfur levelFuel sulfur level Maintenance and operational proceduresMaintenance and operational procedures

27 27 Filter Regeneration Strategies Used to Date In Retrofit Applications Engine reliantEngine reliant Catalyst-assistedCatalyst-assisted Electric heater-assistedElectric heater-assisted Fuel burner-assistedFuel burner-assisted Off-board regenerationOff-board regeneration Intake/exhaust throttlingIntake/exhaust throttling

28 28 Overview of Filter Retrofit Programs The number and scope of retrofit programs are rapidly growingThe number and scope of retrofit programs are rapidly growing –North America (California, New York, New England, Mexico, and elsewhere) –Europe (Austria, Finland, France, Germany, Sweden, Switzerland, and United Kingdom) –Asia (Hong Kong, Korea, Japan, and Taiwan) –Latin America (El Salvador and Nicaragua) Over 50,000 filters retrofitted worldwide on highway and non-road vehiclesOver 50,000 filters retrofitted worldwide on highway and non-road vehicles

29 Other Control Technologies Emulsified Fuel- up to 50% PM, 10 to 15% NOxEmulsified Fuel- up to 50% PM, 10 to 15% NOx Biodiesel (B-20 up to 7% PM, 4% NOx )Biodiesel (B-20 up to 7% PM, 4% NOx ) DOC w/ fuel borne catalyst (41-50% PM )DOC w/ fuel borne catalyst (41-50% PM ) DOC w/ crankcase filtration (25+% PM )DOC w/ crankcase filtration (25+% PM ) Lean-NOx catalystsLean-NOx catalysts Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR)Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) Selective catalytic reduction (SCR)Selective catalytic reduction (SCR)

30 30 Lean NOx Catalysts Used on passenger cars in Europe and on some heavy-duty engines as original equipmentUsed on passenger cars in Europe and on some heavy-duty engines as original equipment Have been retrofitted on a limited scaleHave been retrofitted on a limited scale Can achieve modest NOx reductions, 5- 15%Can achieve modest NOx reductions, 5- 15% Hydrocarbon injection can increase control capabilitiesHydrocarbon injection can increase control capabilities

31 31 Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) A portion of the engines exhaust is recirculated to the turbocharger inlet or intake manifoldA portion of the engines exhaust is recirculated to the turbocharger inlet or intake manifold Cooled, recirculated gases lower combustion temperatures and reduce NOx formationCooled, recirculated gases lower combustion temperatures and reduce NOx formation Particulate filters are an important part of EGR systems, preventing PM from being recirculated to the engineParticulate filters are an important part of EGR systems, preventing PM from being recirculated to the engine

32 32 Exhaust Gas Recirculation (cont.) EGR systems have been installed on some newer enginesEGR systems have been installed on some newer engines Technology demonstration programs of retrofits have been conducted in Houston and Los Angeles; more programs are planned for other citiesTechnology demonstration programs of retrofits have been conducted in Houston and Los Angeles; more programs are planned for other cities EGR can achieve NOx reductions of >40%EGR can achieve NOx reductions of >40%

33 33 Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) Used extensively on stationary sourcesUsed extensively on stationary sources Has been applied to marine vessels and locomotives and in truck and passenger car demonstration programsHas been applied to marine vessels and locomotives and in truck and passenger car demonstration programs Involves use of a catalyst, a reagent (usually a solution of urea, sometimes ammonia) and dosing equipment to inject the reagent into the exhaust streamInvolves use of a catalyst, a reagent (usually a solution of urea, sometimes ammonia) and dosing equipment to inject the reagent into the exhaust stream

34 34 Selective Catalytic Reduction (cont.) SCR control capabilitiesSCR control capabilities –PM – 30 to 50% reduction –CO and HC – >80% –NOx – 60 to 80%

35 35 Key Considerations for Retrofit Programs How long the vehicle is going to remain in serviceHow long the vehicle is going to remain in service The condition of the engine is an important factor in making a decision whether to install retrofit control technologyThe condition of the engine is an important factor in making a decision whether to install retrofit control technology Retrofit at the time of engine rebuild can be advantageousRetrofit at the time of engine rebuild can be advantageous For filter retrofit, one must consider: vehicle application, exhaust temperature (duty cycle), engine-out PM emissions, fuel sulfur level, and the regeneration strategy to be followedFor filter retrofit, one must consider: vehicle application, exhaust temperature (duty cycle), engine-out PM emissions, fuel sulfur level, and the regeneration strategy to be followed

36 36 Key Considerations for Retrofit Programs Retrofit Technology Check ListRetrofit Technology Check List –Model Year Generally, only 1994 and newer should get PM filtersGenerally, only 1994 and newer should get PM filters Some newer engines came with DOCs from the factorySome newer engines came with DOCs from the factory –Size Properly sized control systems ensure low back pressure and maximum performanceProperly sized control systems ensure low back pressure and maximum performance –Vehicle Integration Space, accessibility and exhaust temperature are important vehicle integration issuesSpace, accessibility and exhaust temperature are important vehicle integration issues Devices are often installed in-line or as a muffler replacementDevices are often installed in-line or as a muffler replacement

37 37 Key Considerations for Retrofit Programs Retrofit Technology Check List (cont.)Retrofit Technology Check List (cont.) –Fuel Type For PM control, <15 ppm sulfur fuel allows for maximum emission control performance (even for DOCs) and best filter regeneration characteristicsFor PM control, <15 ppm sulfur fuel allows for maximum emission control performance (even for DOCs) and best filter regeneration characteristics –Maintenance Vehicles to be retrofitted should be properly and regularly maintainedkey factor for successVehicles to be retrofitted should be properly and regularly maintainedkey factor for success Retrofit technologies should be maintained per their manufacturers recommended proceduresRetrofit technologies should be maintained per their manufacturers recommended procedures

38 38 Frequently Asked Questions Concerning Retrofit Programs CostsCosts –Costs depend on many factors including: Number of vehicles retrofitted (sales volume)Number of vehicles retrofitted (sales volume) Retrofit technology used (oxidation catalyst, filter, etc.)Retrofit technology used (oxidation catalyst, filter, etc.) Engine size (displacement)Engine size (displacement) Engine out emissionsEngine out emissions Fuel qualityFuel quality Exhaust temperature and duty cycle (These factors will affect which retrofit technology will be appropriate.)Exhaust temperature and duty cycle (These factors will affect which retrofit technology will be appropriate.) –Costs are expected to decrease as the market expands

39 39 Frequently Asked Questions Concerning Retrofit Programs (cont.) TechnologyCost per Device/System ($) Diesel Oxidation Catalysts (DOC)425 to 1,150 Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF)3,000 to 5,500 Combined Lean NOx Catalyst/DPF Systems5,000 to 10,000 EGR Systems13,000 to 15,000 SCR Systems10,500 to 50,000 Notes: DPF costs are higher for active systems and systems that include backpressure monitoring. Year 2000 data.

40 40 Frequently Asked Questions Concerning Retrofit Programs (cont.) DrivabilityDrivability –Properly selected retrofit technologies do not impair driving performance MaintenanceMaintenance –Oxidation and lean NOx catalysts are virtually maintenance free –Filters require very little maintenance (ash removal) –SCR maintenance, as per manufacturers specifications Effects on Engine LifeEffects on Engine Life –Properly maintained engines and retrofit control systems do not shorten engine life

41 41 Frequently Asked Questions Concerning Retrofit Programs (cont.) Fuel PenaltiesFuel Penalties –Most oxidation and lean NOx catalysts have no effect on fuel consumption –Most filters have no effect on fuel consumption –Urea consumption in SCR systems results in an equivalent fuel penalty of 3-5% WarrantiesWarranties –Manufacturers provide various warranties as part of a purchase agreement

42 42 Conclusions A wide variety of retrofit options are available for diesel engines to reduce HC, CO, PM and toxic emissionsA wide variety of retrofit options are available for diesel engines to reduce HC, CO, PM and toxic emissions NOx retrofit controls are emergingNOx retrofit controls are emerging A growing number of retrofit programs are being successfully implementedA growing number of retrofit programs are being successfully implemented Technology development continues to expand the range of applications available for retrofitTechnology development continues to expand the range of applications available for retrofit A successful retrofit program must be properly designed and implementedA successful retrofit program must be properly designed and implemented

43 43 Some Diesel Retrofit Web Sites EPAs Voluntary Diesel Retrofit Program:EPAs Voluntary Diesel Retrofit Program: –http://www.epa.gov/otaq/retrofit The Manufacturers of Emission Controls Association:The Manufacturers of Emission Controls Association: –http://www.meca.org –Click on Publications to access MECA fact sheets and technical documents on diesel retrofit The Diesel Technology Forum:The Diesel Technology Forum: –http://www.dieseltechnologyforum.com/ The California Air Resources Boards Diesel Risk Reduction Program:The California Air Resources Boards Diesel Risk Reduction Program: –http://www.arb.ca.gov/diesel/dieselrrp.htm


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