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Mountaintop Mining A Perspective from David Hartos, Physical Scientist U.S. Department of Interior - Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement.

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Presentation on theme: "Mountaintop Mining A Perspective from David Hartos, Physical Scientist U.S. Department of Interior - Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement."— Presentation transcript:

1 Mountaintop Mining A Perspective from David Hartos, Physical Scientist U.S. Department of Interior - Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement 9 th Annual Wetlands & Watershed Workshop October 25, 2007

2 Disclaimer The views expressed are those of the presenter and do not necessarily represent to the views of the Department of Interior or the Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement

3 Public Law Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 Provides for the cooperation between the Secretary of Interior and the States with the respect to the regulation of surface coal mining operation and the acquisition and reclamation of abandoned mines, and for other purposesProvides for the cooperation between the Secretary of Interior and the States with the respect to the regulation of surface coal mining operation and the acquisition and reclamation of abandoned mines, and for other purposes Referred to by it acronym SMCRA, which is sound like smack-raReferred to by it acronym SMCRA, which is sound like smack-ra Because of the diversity in terrain, climate, biologic, chemical, and other physical condition, encourages the States to take primary role in developing, authorizing, issuing, and enforcing regulations for surface coal mining reclamation operations subject to this act.Because of the diversity in terrain, climate, biologic, chemical, and other physical condition, encourages the States to take primary role in developing, authorizing, issuing, and enforcing regulations for surface coal mining reclamation operations subject to this act.

4 U.S. Department of Interior Office of Surface Mining and Enforcement

5 OSMs Mission To carry out the requirements of SMCRA in cooperation with States and Tribes. OBJECTIVES Protect citizensProtect citizens Protect the environmentProtect the environment Restore active minesRestore active mines Reclaim abandoned coal minesReclaim abandoned coal mines

6 Federal Surface Mining Program SMCRA 30 U.S.C SMCRA 30 U.S.C SMCRA Federal 30 CFR Part 700 – End.SMCRA Federal 30 CFR Part 700 – End. Policy directives atPolicy directives at

7 Distribution of Coal Resources in the lower 48 States

8 Production Facts In 2004, coal was mined within 26 states and tribal lands.In 2004, coal was mined within 26 states and tribal lands. The top ten producing states and tribes in 2004:The top ten producing states and tribes in 2004: –Wyoming396.5 million tons –West Virginia million tons –Kentucky114.2 million tons –Pennsylvania 66.0 million tons –Texas 45.9 million tons –Montana 40.0 million tons –Colorado 39.9 million tons –Indiana 35.1 million tons –Illinois 31.9 million tons –Virginia 31.4 million tons Source: Table 1 of the U.S. DOE - Energy Information Administration / Annual Coal Report, DOE/EIA-0584 (2004)

9 Primacy States are encouraged to regulate coal mining but must demonstrate that they have State laws, regulations, policies and organizational structure to carryout the provisions of SMCRA Of the 26 coal producing states and tribal lands, 24 have primacy & only two states --Tennessee and Washington – have federally administered SMCRA programs.Of the 26 coal producing states and tribal lands, 24 have primacy & only two states --Tennessee and Washington – have federally administered SMCRA programs. OSM also administers the SMCRA program for:OSM also administers the SMCRA program for: –Arizona Hopi –Arizona Navajo –Montana Crow –New Mexico Navajo

10 Regulatory Goals in a Nutshell Collection of adequate baseline informationCollection of adequate baseline information Good planning – mine operation and reclamation designs that minimize environmental impacts and protect citizensGood planning – mine operation and reclamation designs that minimize environmental impacts and protect citizens Perform well – complying with the terms of program requirements and in accord with the approved permitPerform well – complying with the terms of program requirements and in accord with the approved permit

11 Mountaintop removal coal mine in southern WV Photo by Vivian Stockman Mountaintop removal coal mine in southern WV Photo by Vivian Stockman

12 Mountaintop removal coal mine in southern WV Photo by Vivian Stockman

13 Mine Reclamation Ultimate goal – reclamation of mined landUltimate goal – reclamation of mined land SMCRA encourages the enhancement of fish and wildlife habitatSMCRA encourages the enhancement of fish and wildlife habitat SMCRA encourages reclaiming the land to a higher and better land use.SMCRA encourages reclaiming the land to a higher and better land use.

14 Indiana, Vigo Coal Company, Discovery #1

15 Montana, Western Energy Company, Rosebud Mine

16 Alabama, Drummond Coal Company, Mill Creek Mine

17 Kentucky, Saarcar Coal, Inc. & Rifle Coal Company

18 North Dakota, Bellaire Corporation, Indian Head Mine

19 Texas, TXU Mining, previously Texas Utilities Mining Company, Big Brown Mine

20 Texas, TXU Mining, previously Texas Utilities Mining Company, Monticello Mine

21 Ohio, R & F Coal Company

22 Indiana, Black Beauty Coal Company

23 North Dakota, The Coteau Properties Company, Freedom Mine

24 Pennsylvania

25 Maryland, tree farms, Buffalo Coal Company

26 Kentucky, Stone Mining Company, Grants Branch Impoundment

27 Peabody – Gibraltor Mine - Kentucky

28 Some Notable Current Initiatives As we learn, we are striving to do betterAs we learn, we are striving to do better

29 Appalachian Clean Streams Initiative Introduced in the fall of 1994.Introduced in the fall of The mission of the Appalachian Clean Streams Initiative is to facilitate and coordinate citizen groups, university researchers, the coal industry, corporations, the environmental community, and local, state, and federal government agencies that are involved in cleaning up streams polluted by acid drainage.The mission of the Appalachian Clean Streams Initiative is to facilitate and coordinate citizen groups, university researchers, the coal industry, corporations, the environmental community, and local, state, and federal government agencies that are involved in cleaning up streams polluted by acid drainage. OSM and EPA Region III signed a statement of mutual intent on February 9, 1995OSM and EPA Region III signed a statement of mutual intent on February 9, 1995.

30 Interesting Facts In 2005, OSM provided 11 states with $3.2 millionIn 2005, OSM provided 11 states with $3.2 million Since 1994 when the supplemental state grants began, OSM has provided $47 million for 158 projects, 119 have been completed and outside funding grew to over $23 million on the projectsSince 1994 when the supplemental state grants began, OSM has provided $47 million for 158 projects, 119 have been completed and outside funding grew to over $23 million on the projects In 1999, OSM began the Watershed Cooperative Agreement Program as part of the Clean Streams Program and has awarded 141 cooperative agreements and amendments at cost of $12,468,665.In 1999, OSM began the Watershed Cooperative Agreement Program as part of the Clean Streams Program and has awarded 141 cooperative agreements and amendments at cost of $12,468,665.

31 More Interesting Facts Watershed Internship Program The Office of Surface Mining and the Environmental Protection Agency initiated the Summer Watershed Internship program in 1999, and in 2005, funded 22 interns in eight states.The Office of Surface Mining and the Environmental Protection Agency initiated the Summer Watershed Internship program in 1999, and in 2005, funded 22 interns in eight states. Since the program began, 168 interns have been placed in ten states all of them working directly for watershed groups on acid mine drainage issues.Since the program began, 168 interns have been placed in ten states all of them working directly for watershed groups on acid mine drainage issues.

32 More Interesting Facts OSM / VISTA Watershed Team OSM and the AmeriCorps VISTA program partnered to create the OSM/VISTA Team.OSM and the AmeriCorps VISTA program partnered to create the OSM/VISTA Team. There are more than 30 full-time OSM/VISTA Volunteers serving as Watershed Development Coordinators in 7 Appalachian coal states.There are more than 30 full-time OSM/VISTA Volunteers serving as Watershed Development Coordinators in 7 Appalachian coal states. This was not done alone: other agency funds and other agency personnel play critical roles in virtually every one of these partnership efforts, efforts that bring state and federal partners together in support of local projects assisted by OSM/VISTAs to make a difference.This was not done alone: other agency funds and other agency personnel play critical roles in virtually every one of these partnership efforts, efforts that bring state and federal partners together in support of local projects assisted by OSM/VISTAs to make a difference.

33 Ohio, Majesty Mine Complex, Monday Creek Restoration Project BeforeAfter

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35 ARRI advocates using a technique known as the Forestry Reclamation Approach, or FRA, to plant trees on reclaimed coal mined lands.Forestry Reclamation Approach, or FRA, GOALS Plant more high-value hardwood trees on reclaimed coal mined lands in Appalachia; Increase the survival rates and growth rates of planted trees; Expedite the establishment of forest habitat through natural succession

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38 Can you identify which of the trees were grown on a reclaimed mine?

39 The inventory provides vital statistics on about 300 Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) treatment projects in West Virginia, Maryland, Ohio and Pennsylvania. It is available online at AMD Treat 4.0 AMDTreat helps government agencies and citizens select the most cost effective method to treat streams damaged by acid mine drainage (AMD).

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41 Technology Transfer Great ideas need to be sharedGreat ideas need to be shared

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