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Salinity and Sediment Contaminants and the Reflectance & Green-up of Phragmites australis Ildiko Pechmann & Francisco Artigas New Jersey Meadowlands Commission.

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Presentation on theme: "Salinity and Sediment Contaminants and the Reflectance & Green-up of Phragmites australis Ildiko Pechmann & Francisco Artigas New Jersey Meadowlands Commission."— Presentation transcript:

1 Salinity and Sediment Contaminants and the Reflectance & Green-up of Phragmites australis Ildiko Pechmann & Francisco Artigas New Jersey Meadowlands Commission – Meadowlands Research Institute 9th Wetlands & Watersheds Workshop Atlantic City, NJ Oct

2 Project Overview Background: Relationship between pigment concentration and light reflectance from leavesRelationship between pigment concentration and light reflectance from leaves Light reflectance from leaves is modulated by stressor factorsLight reflectance from leaves is modulated by stressor factors

3 Hypothesis: The light reflected from plants can be used as a surrogate variable to determine salinity and metal concentration in the sediments.The light reflected from plants can be used as a surrogate variable to determine salinity and metal concentration in the sediments.

4 Objectives Overall: - Find if metal toxicity alters or modifies chlorophyll content in a way that plants under metal stress show differences in reflectance Specific: - Measure salinity and metals at seven distinct study sites - Measure metal uptake by leaves over the growing season - Measure light reflectance from leaves and canopies over the growing season - Find if there is a relationship between metal content in leaves and light reflectance

5 Field Work Sampling (May 2 – July 20) –Leaf samples –Sediment samples –Leaf reflectance (field data) –Canopy reflectance (field data)

6 Parameters measured Test plant: Phragmites australis Leaves: -metal concentration (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn) -reflectance Canopy: Sediment: -metal concentration (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn) -Salinity [ppt]

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8 Contaminants in the sediment in May and August

9 CdCrCuFeHgNiPbZn CdCorrelation Sig CrCorrelation Sig CuCorrelation Sig FeCorrelation Sig HgCorrelation Sig NiCorrelation Sig PbCorrelation Sig ZnCorrelation 1 Sig.. Metal-metal relationship in the sediment Cr, Cd, Hg and Zn tend to coexist in the sediment

10 Calculating Toxic Units - Metal concentrations in sediment were transformed in toxic units (TU) according to the E-RM (Effect Range Median) values (Long&Morgan, 1990) - Toxicity ranged between 0 and 80 TU depending on how much the metal concentrations exceeded the E-RM criteria. - Summary of TUs were calculated for each sampling site and related to reflectance parameters

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12 PeakFit v.4.12 Spectral data analysis Vegetation Indices -Greenness Ratio: ρGREENρRED -Red Edge Inflection Point (REIP) -NDVI: ρNIR – ρRED ρNIR + ρRED

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14 Metal in the leaves

15 Leaf Red Edge Inflection Point versus sediment toxicity

16 Canopy Red Edge Inflection Point versus metal toxicity

17 Conclusion The most saline site – CT - showed a delayed green-up The most contaminated sites – DA; DB - showed an early flowering However the canopy reflectance measurements showed relationship with sediment toxicity. Our results indicated that there were no changes in the leaf reflectance due to the metal toxicity

18 Future Research Focus on differences in light reflectance due to theFocus on differences in light reflectance due to the plant architecture and canopy texture as they relate plant architecture and canopy texture as they relate to bio-geological conditions in the sediment. to bio-geological conditions in the sediment. Continue to use remote sensors to classify stress levelsContinue to use remote sensors to classify stress levels in Phragmites communities. Also use remote sensors to look at phenology (i.e.Also use remote sensors to look at phenology (i.e. flowering and green-up timing) to identify Phragmites stands under heavy metal stress

19 Acknowledgements The Meadowlands Environmental Research Institute -Dr. Jin Young Shin -Yefim Levinsky -So Yeon

20 Acknowledgements The Meadowlands Environmental Research Institute -Dr. Jin Young Shin -Yefim Levinsky -So Yeon


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