The scope of Exercise and Sports Science –three primary areas Psychology: deals with behavioral aspects of exercise and sport including learning aspects Physiology: How physiologic systems respond and adapt to human movement Biomechanics: Study of physical/mechanical principles that underlie human motion
Foundations of Exercise and Sports Science Exercise and Sports Science— “New” Interdisciplinary Sciences Characteristics of Science A “science” needs objectivity and evidence Need to distinguish between anecdotal and scientific evidence
Foundations of Exercise and Sports Science In search of Truth in Science (and Advertising) Testimonial approach – often incorrect assumptions Tenacity - Propaganda Knowledge of authority Rationalistic method – may lead to right or wrong hypothesis Scientific method can alleviate inappropriate conclusions
Foundations of Exercise and Sports Science The Scientific Method Goal is discovering what is true – science is not a philosophical debate Basic tenet – truth is out there and it can be measured Questions lead to research Observation: Phenomenon to be explained Hypothesis: Logical explanations Experiment: Scientific study to verify hypotheses The statistical approach Mathematical tool to understand evidence
EXERCISE SCIENTISTS: - uses exercise or training to understand biology SPORT SCIENTISTS: - uses biology to understand sport function to bridge the gap between science and sport
To be a better sport scientist(s): 1.be a very good scientist 2.be interested in the sport(s) and the development of elite performance 3.knowledge of sport(s) – personal interest 4.knowledge of training practices and outcomes 5.be willing to train like they do ? – better understand the sport 6.provoke thought -challenge 7.Become part of the sport.
Foundations of Exercise Science Summary Points Exercise Science and Sports Science are new fields of study formed by merging other disciplines Major areas of concentration include: physiology, biomechanics and psychology Scientific method uses : controlled observation, hypothesis, and experimentation
Discovery or observational science. Hypothesis-driven or experimental science. Two Primary Approaches to Science
How (Most) Science Works – The Scientific Method and Hypothesis-Driven Science Its not all mechanics - intuition, hunches, and a feel for the system under study drive scientific investigations. Should be falsifiable.
A Classic Application of the Scientific Method Note that it’s fine to have more than one testable hypothesis.
Note that two independent experiments reject the hypothesis of spontaneous generation and support the alternative hypothesis that life comes only from existing life. A Classic Application of the Scientific Method
Rejection of a hypothesis proves it wrong; support of a hypothesis doesn’t prove it right. Scientific Proof?
Some Scientific Questions Can’t Be Answered By Experimentation One current view of hominid evolution. Discovery or observational science is still science; falsifiable hypotheses based on natural phenomenon are proposed to best account for observations.
Provisional Assent – Scientific Ideas Can Only Be Proven Wrong A theory stands because observations or experimentation never proves its tenets wrong. This doesn’t prove the theory is correct – only that its never been proved wrong. In this sense, scientific knowledge is provisional. But what’s a theory?
Fact, Hypothesis and Theory These terms, especially theory, are commonly misunderstood. A hypothesis is a testable prediction. A fact is an undisputed piece of information derived from observation. A good hypothesis should be falsifiable. A theory is a general set of principles that explain some natural phenomenon. Examples of scientific theories are the theory of gravitation, the atomic theory, the cell theory, and the theory of evolution.
What Kind of People Are Scientists? Reality: Scientists can be egocentric, emotional nutcakes at least as well as anyone. The Textbook Case Scientists are dispassionate and always reasoned in their approaches to their discipline and the world around them.
The Scope and Limitations of Science Science acquires knowledge through examination of falsifiable hypotheses based on natural phenomena. This sets a limit on science; science cannot speak directly to such issues as morality or religion. The domain and limit of science are often misunderstood.