Presentation on theme: "Can Arts-based Training Enhance Cultural Competence? Prof Helen Higson, Dr Kai Liu 17 th June 2011."— Presentation transcript:
Can Arts-based Training Enhance Cultural Competence? Prof Helen Higson, Dr Kai Liu 17 th June 2011
Introduction Intercultural training – an overlooked area in business education - High percentage of International Students - Educating Global Leaders Intercultural training in corporate sector - Intercultural training itself become a "growing branch of the coaching and consulting industries" (Szkudlarek 2009) - There is call for teaching to move away from focusing teaching exclusively on country-specific, predominantly cognitive cultural and linguistic knowledge, toward general cultural sensitivity skills, or cultural intelligence, which enables managers to adapt swiftly to new cultural situations" (Blasco 2009: 13)
Literature Review Intercultural training in learning context - The effectiveness of an individual to work across cultural boundaries increases with the number of their international/intercultural experiences (Herzfeldt 2007) - It is important to challenge the deficit model of intercultural training where the UK approach is seen as the best (Ippolito 2007) - Building training on individual stories rather than stereotypes (Welikala and Watkins 2008) Intercultural training in corporate context - Few intercultural training programmes are skill-based; instead, they are focused on building awareness of the expatriates own culture and the culture of the host country (Littrell and Salas 2005) - Those conventional methods that rely on country-specific knowledge often prove inadequate given the nature of increasingly complicated cultural environments and assignments (Earley and Peterson 2004)
Literature Review (contd.) Arts-based methods for management and leadership development - Four distinctive processes (skill transfer, projective technique, Illustration of essence and making ) of arts-based methods (Taylor and Ladkin 2009) - Aesthetic forms have an important role to play in helping to make tacit knowledge of invisible concepts, such as culture visible (Linstead 2006) - Theory of the aesthetics of leadership storytelling (Taylor, Fisher, and Dufresne 2002) - Participating in the arts gives adults experiences, contexts and tools to help them re-experience, revise and reconceptualise multicultural diversity in their lives and communities. (Wesley 2007: 13)
Using Arts-based methods for Intercultural training Practising arts can make people communicate deeply even without speak their own language, practising arts together can have a harmonising effects for all the participants, thus allow them to seek common grounds in their communicative process. It is fun! using arts -based methods often involve physical activities (e.g. theatre practice and dancing) which make the whole process an interesting and entertaining experiences. It plays a crucial role of "ice breaking" and building rapport among participants. Those skills are probably the most important skills to be acquired to deal with intercultural encounters. It provides a natural setting (non-academic environment) and level-playing field for home and international students to interact, thus build confidence and encourage reflections among participants.
Research Design Sample - Undergraduate students in 2009 and 2010 - Pre-training (N=202) and Post-training (N=84) Pre-training survey and post-training survey - Cultural Intelligence (CQ) can be defined as an individuals capability to deal effective in situations characterised by cultural diversity (Earley and Ang 2003) - Four factors and 20 items (metacognitive, cognitive, motivational, behavioural)
Descriptive Data Analysis (1) Cultural Intelligence Scale (CQ)Pre-TrainingPost-TrainingDifference MSDM Metacognitive I am conscious of the cultural knowledge I use when interacting with people with different cultural backgrounds (Mc1) 5.191.435.331.54+ 0.14 I adjust my cultural knowledge as I interact with people from a culture that is unfamiliar to me (Mc2) 5.211.285.191.51- 0.02 I am conscious of the cultural knowledge I apply to cross-cultural interactions (Mc3) 4.941.355.051.41+ 0.11 I check the accuracy of my cultural knowledge as I interact with people from different cultures (Mc4) 4.851.534.921.47+ 0.07 Cognitive I know the legal and economic systems of other cultures (Cog1)3.641.453.991.51+ 0.35 I know the rules (e.g., vocabulary, grammar) of other languages (Cog2) 3.821.684.011.83+ 0.19 I know the cultural values and religious beliefs of other cultures (Cog3) 4.381.434.611.53+ 0.23 I know the marriage systems of other cultures (Cog4)3.861.534.231.57+ 0.37 I know the arts and crafts of other cultures (Cog5)3.821.514.171.58+ 0.35 I know the rules for expressing non-verbal behaviours in other cultures (Cog6) 3.741.583.881.70+ 0.14 Table 1a. Means and Standard Deviations of Measures at Pre-training and Post-training
Descriptive Data Analysis (2) Table 1a. Means and Standard Deviations of Measures at Pre-training and Post-training (contd) Motivational I enjoy interacting with people from different cultures (Mot1)5.631.435.681.69+ 0.05 I am confident that I can socialize with locals in a culture that is unfamiliar to me (Mot2) 5.061.515.371.66+ 0.31 I am sure I can deal with the stresses of adjusting to a culture that is new to me (Mot3) 5.091.475.451.51+ 0.36 I enjoy living in cultures that are unfamiliar to me (Mot4)4.731.585.061.52+ 0.33 I am confident that I can get accustomed to the shopping conditions in a different culture (Mot5) 5.091.485.381.39+ 0.29 Behavioural I change my verbal behavior (e.g., accent, tone) when a cross- cultural interaction requires it (Beh1) 4.71.594.921.56+ 0.22 I use pause and silence differently to suit different cross- cultural situations (Beh2) 4.291.494.691.66+ 0.4 I vary the rate of my speaking when a cross-cultural situation requires it (Beh3) 4.811.4351.52+ 0.19 I change my non-verbal behavior when a cross-cultural interaction requires it (Beh4) 4.611.594.871.5+ 0.29 I alter my facial expressions when a cross-cultural interaction requires it (Beh5) 4.311.624.81.55+ 0.49
Descriptive Data Analysis (3) MeasuresPre-TrainingPost-TrainingDifference MSDM Metacognitive20.24.7520.55.14+ 0.3 Cognitive23.277.0124.97.92+ 1.63 Motivational25.616.1226.96.72+ 1.29 Behavioural22.726.2624.276.65+ 1.55 Table 1b. Means/Standard Deviations of Measures at Pre-training and Post-training (composite score)
Descriptive Data Analysis (4) Figure 2: Four factor CQ of Home/EU and International students in pre-training and post-training settings
Descriptive Data Analysis (5) Figure 3: Four factor CQ of English as first Language in pre-training and post-training settings
Descriptive Data Analysis (6) Figure 2: Four factor CQ of students who speak only one language (No) or more than one (Yes) in pre-training and post-training settings
Qualitative Analysis What are you expecting to get from intercultural training? I hope to learn more about different cultures and ways that make it easier to interact with people from a different cultural background I want to develop skills in interacting better when (I) am in a multicultural environment Were Expectations met? It was quite different to my original expectations; however, it did address the issue of how different people view the same situation in a different manner I came out with a better understanding of group work involving team members whose first language was not English
Conclusion Arts-based methods prove to be an effective way to deliver intercultural training. The training is particularly beneficial for improving motivational and behavioural factors. The training works better for Home/EU students than international students.