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the alignment of learning educational technology

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Presentation on theme: "the alignment of learning educational technology"— Presentation transcript:

1 the alignment of learning educational technology
and teaching using educational technology David B Hay King’s Institute of Learning and Teaching KILT

2 that can reveal which we use illustrated to explain by
1. Learning Theory 2. Methods of Graphic Organisation 3. Cognitive Structures 4. A Model of Teaching Technology use In HE New Learning Frameworks that can reveal to introduce that explains the development of alternative which we use to explain illustrated by 5. with considerable implications for and the design of Constructive Alignment to achieve

3 Learning Theory

4 Learning Process and Learning Quality

5 The Learning Process Jarvis 1987, 1985

6 the person reinforced but relatively unchanged the person situation experience memorisation practice experimentation evaluation the person changed and more experienced reasoning and reflection

7 there are 9 routes through the model
the person reinforced but relatively unchanged the person situation there are 9 routes through the model three lead to ‘the person reinforced but relatively unchanged’ and are classed as NON LEARNING three lead through memorisation to either ‘reinforcement without change’ or to ‘the person changed’: these constitute NON REFLECTIVE LEARNING three lead to ‘the person changed and more experienced’ and are examples of REFLECTIVE LEARNING experience memorisation practice experimentation evaluation the person changed and more experienced reasoning and reflection

8 non-learning presumption, non-consideration and rejection
the person reinforced but relatively unchanged

9 the person reinforced but relatively unchanged experience the person reinforced but relatively unchanged the person reinforced but relatively unchanged the person situation the person situation experience reasoning and reflection experience memorisation practice experimentation evaluation the person changed and more experienced reasoning and reflection

10 non-reflective learning preconscious, practice and memorisation
the person reinforced but relatively unchanged changed and more experienced memorisation practice evaluation reflection

11 the person reinforced but relatively unchanged the person reinforced but relatively unchanged the person situation experience memorisation memorisation memorisation practice experimentation evaluation the person changed and more experienced the person changed and more experienced reasoning and reflection

12 reflective learning contemplation, practice and experience
the person changed and more experienced practice evaluation reflection

13 the person reinforced but relatively unchanged the person situation experience the person changed and more experienced practice experimentation reasoning and reflection memorisation evaluation memorisation practice experimentation evaluation the person changed and more experienced reasoning and reflection

14 Learning Quality Marton and others e. g. F. Marton, D. Hounsell, & N
Learning Quality Marton and others e.g.. F. Marton, D. Hounsell, & N. Entwistle (Eds.) 1984 The experience of learning (Edinburgh, Scottish Academic Press) Entwistle, 1990; Entwistle, McCune, & Walker, 2001; Entwistle & Tait, 1994; Entwistle, Meyer & Tait, 1991: Marton & Säljö,1976: Marton, 1986; Säljö, 1975.

15 Surface Learning KNOWLEDGE
an increase in knowledge or information about a subject acquired by gathering unrelated facts and without integration with what is already known KNOWLEDGE an ability to apply new knowledge to particular tasks and problems but without transferability APPLICATION an ability to recall new information but usually only short-term ENDURANCE

16 Deep Learning an increase in UNDERSTANDING of a subject
involving grasp of underlying principles KNOWLEDGE an ability to apply newly understood principles in a variety of different contexts and situations APPLICATION long-lasting personal change ENDURANCE

17 1. Learning Theory 2. Methods of Graphic Organisation 3. Cognitive
that explains the development of alternative to introduce 2. Methods of Graphic Organisation 3. Cognitive Structures that can reveal which we use to explain illustrated by 4. A Model of Teaching 5. with considerable implications for Technology use In HE New Learning Frameworks and the design of Constructive Alignment to achieve to achieve

18 Concept Mapping Novak and Colleagues
e.g. Novak & Gowan, 1986; Novak, 1998

19 Meaningful versus Rote Leaning
Learners relevant prior knowledge meaningful material learner chooses assessed by to use not to use selected by stored in meaningful learning meaningful learning rote learning produces constructive changes in network of neurones encourages teacher discourages

20 the concept mapping method
Concepts are arranged hierarchically on a page Concepts are written in boxes and linked with directional linking statements to form propositions Each concept can be used only once Each concept can be linked to as many as is desirable

21 ANIMALS can be M O R E S P C I F mostly are can be COLD BLOODED
INVERTEBRATE VERTEBRATE M O R E S P C I F mostly are can be COLD BLOODED WARM BLOODED ARTHROPODS can be insulated with TERRESTRIAL MARINE FUR FEATHERS e.g. beetles, flies e.g. crabs, lobsters e.g. sheep, cats e.g. robins, penguins

22 Novak’s scoring system
link example event key concept less general specific cross link object general Novak’s scoring system

23 8 9 14 18

24 Reducing rich data to a number
= 5/10 = 8/10 = 6/10 = 4/10 = 7/10 = 9/10 = 6.5/10

25 3. Cognitive Structures 4. A Model of Teaching
1. Learning Theory that explains the development of alternative to introduce 2. Methods of Graphic Organisation 3. Cognitive Structures that can reveal which we use to explain illustrated by 4. A Model of Teaching 5. with considerable implications for Technology use In HE New Learning Frameworks and the design of Constructive Alignment to achieve

26 a qualitative approach to concept map analysis Kinchin, Hay and colleagues
Kinchin, Hay & Adams, 2000

27 A B C VIRUSES BACTERIA invade CELLS ANTIBIOTICS DISEASES causing
smaller than B VIRUSES invade BACTERIA CELLS DISEASES invade causing MEASLES ANTIBIOTICS BACTERIA only kill such as CELLS cause unaffected by cause ANTIBIOTICS DISEASES MEASLES C DISEASES caused by caused by VIRUSES smaller than BACTERIA not treatable with cause invade not killed by killed by MEASLES CELLS ANTIBIOTICS work outside

28 student maps comprise three basic structures

29 expert (teacher maps) are network structures
lesson plans however, tend to be chains

30 A B C SPOKES CHAINS are are NON-LINEAR CHANGIBLE are have no indicate
CROSS-LINKS LEARNING READINESS so SIMPLE CHANGE C is NETWORKS comprise indicate DIFFICULT EXPERTIESE is indicative of COMPLEXITY because justified by sub-subsumes RESTRUCTURE which is requires ARGUMENT CONTRADICTION STABLE ameliorated through COLLAPSE

31 STUDENT RECONSTRUCTION
CONVENTIONAL TEACHING SEQUENCE EXPERT STRUCTURE E C A B D E C A B D A B C D E PR STUDENT NON-ENGAGEMENT (memorization) E C A B D STUDENT RECONSTRUCTION

32 ROTE LEARNING EXPERT LECTURE LEARNING READY
VIRUSES CELLS DISEASES invade causing MEASLES ANTIBIOTICS BACTERIA not treatable with only kill such as ROTE LEARNING CELLS MEASLES ANTIBIOTICS BACTERIA caused by invade killed by cause VIRUSES DISEASES smaller than not killed by work outside EXPERT VIRUSES CELLS DISEASES invade causing MEASLES ANTIBIOTICS BACTERIA not treatable with only kill such as LECTURE CELLS MEASLES ANTIBIOTICS BACTERIA caused by invade killed by cause VIRUSES DISEASES smaller than not killed by work outside VIRUSES CELLS MEASLES ANTIBIOTICS BACTERIA caused by DISEASES MEANING MAKER DISEASES MEASLES ANTIBIOTICS invade BACTERIA cause smaller than unaffected by LEARNING READY CELLS VIRUSES

33 using concept mapping knowledge and understanding become graphic representations change (that is indicative of learning) becomes measurable in quality terms and the consequences of different teaching strategies are observable

34 3. Cognitive Structures 4. A Model of Teaching
1. Learning Theory that explains the development of alternative to introduce 2. Methods of Graphic Organisation 3. Cognitive Structures that can reveal which we use to explain illustrated by 4. A Model of Teaching 5. with considerable implications for Technology use In HE New Learning Frameworks and the design of Constructive Alignment to achieve

35 if the approach is valid
then some of the predicted outcomes of learning should be measurable deep versus surface learning (Marton) learning versus non learning (Jarvis) meaningful versus rote learning (Novak)

36 deep, surface and non-learning are observable phenomena
Studies in Higher Education David B Hay (2007) Using concept maps to measure deep, surface and non- learning outcomes. Studies in Higher Education, 32 (1) due for publication Feb 2007 S R H E

37 retained concepts newly added concepts

38 basic knowledge structure remains unchanged = non learning
newly added concept never incorporated basic knowledge structure remains unchanged = non learning new knowledge added superficially = surface learning old concepts now rejected

39 non – learning and surface learning are
observable phenomena – but so to is deep (or meaningful) learning

40

41 meaningful learning old links broken old concepts rejected
new concepts added new links forged between old and new

42 x EXPERT NON-LEARNER NO INTERACTION non learning EXPERT
SURFACE LEARNER TRIVIAL INTERACTION based on undue repetition of transmission signal surface learning MEANINGFUL LEARNER EXPERT MEANINGFUL INTERACTION meaningful learning based on meaningful sharing of cognitive structures

43 concept mapping can be used to measure learning quality
but it also provides a framework for the constructive alignment of teaching and learning

44 this is because concept mapping can also:
facilitate sharing of understanding of the rich and complex knowledge structures that belie prescriptive lesson plans

45 1. Learning Theory 2. Methods of Graphic Organisation 3. Cognitive
that explains the development of alternative to introduce 2. Methods of Graphic Organisation 3. Cognitive Structures that can reveal which we use to explain illustrated by 4. A Model of Teaching 5. with considerable implications for Technology use In HE New Learning Frameworks and the design of Constructive Alignment to achieve

46 conventional lesson plans, lectures, practicals
and other formal or organised learning activities tend towards linearity this promotes a surface approach to learning that is commonly unwarranted

47

48 often the student who follows the lecture route is ignorant of any other route through the over-arching knowledge structure

49

50 in fact many different routes exist and the knowledge and understanding developed by an awareness of these routes is not to be foregone if the novice is to become and expert

51 Earl’s Court Holborn

52 furthermore, expert status is only really attained when the learner comes to be able to locate what they know and understand in a broader context

53

54

55                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         

56 meaningful teaching is the art of selecting appropriate routes
through complex networks of expert understanding

57 meaningful learning is the art of navigation through chains of
expression in order to discover underlying networks of understanding

58 concept mapping allows the knowledge and understanding of experts to be organised in systematic ways that permit the designation of learning routes through rich and complex subject networks

59 students can follow these routes and explore new routes for themselves
when they do so they will be able to choose to learn in ways that are strategically appropriate

60 this is a justified approach grounded in research and in the principles of constructive alignment it aims to balance the goals of self-directed and student centred learning with the traditions of didactic and expert led teaching in higher education

61 The approach has application in all areas of teaching and learning but it is likely to have particular impact in the design and development of educational technology

62 we would argue that to date there is no such thing as a pedagogy of e-learning, but that when lecturers are provided with concept mapping tools for organising knowledge and information and for developing routes of learning through these networks then e-learning will have pedagogy

63 David B Hay and Ian M Kinchin
far from replacing the lecturer, educational technology will re-asserting the central role of the academic expert as author of meaningful learning experiences and as the agent of support for student progression towards expert status David B Hay and Ian M Kinchin

64 when they themselves become the
quality of learning expert (teacher) maps plans when they themselves become the cognitive network learning routes through In order to develop own chooses students CONCEPT MAPS


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