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Kings Institute of Learning and Teaching KILT David B Hay the alignment of learning and teaching using educational technology.

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Presentation on theme: "Kings Institute of Learning and Teaching KILT David B Hay the alignment of learning and teaching using educational technology."— Presentation transcript:

1 Kings Institute of Learning and Teaching KILT David B Hay the alignment of learning and teaching using educational technology

2 1. Learning Theory 2. Methods of Graphic Organisation 3. Cognitive Structures 4. A Model of Teaching Technology use In HE New Learning Frameworks that can reveal to introduce that explains the development of alternative which we use to explain illustrated by 5. with considerable implications for and the design of Constructive Alignment to achieve

3 Learning Theory

4 Learning Process and Learning Quality

5 The Learning Process Jarvis 1987, 1985

6 the person reinforced but relatively unchanged situation experience the person changed and more experienced practice experimentation reasoning and reflection memorisation evaluation

7 the person reinforced but relatively unchanged situation experience the person changed and more experienced practice experimentation reasoning and reflection memorisation evaluation there are 9 routes through the model three lead to the person reinforced but relatively unchanged and are classed as NON LEARNING three lead through memorisation to either reinforcement without change or to the person changed: these constitute NON REFLECTIVE LEARNING three lead to the person changed and more experienced and are examples of REFLECTIVE LEARNING

8 non-learning presumption, non-consideration and rejection the person reinforced but relatively unchanged

9 the person reinforced but relatively unchanged the person changed and more experienced practice experimentation reasoning and reflection memorisation evaluation the personsituation experience the personsituation the person reinforced but relatively unchanged experience reasoning and reflection the person reinforced but relatively unchanged

10 non-reflective learning preconscious, practice and memorisation the person reinforced but relatively unchanged the person changed and more experienced memorisation practiceevaluationreflection

11 the person reinforced but relatively unchanged experience the person changed and more experienced practice experimentation reasoning and reflection memorisation evaluation the personsituation memorisation the person reinforced but relatively unchanged the person changed and more experienced

12 reflective learning contemplation, practice and experience the person changed and more experienced practiceevaluationreflection

13 the person reinforced but relatively unchanged experience the person changed and more experienced practice experimentation reasoning and reflection memorisation evaluation the personsituation the person changed and more experienced practice experimentation reasoning and reflection memorisation evaluation

14 Learning Quality Marton and others e.g.. F. Marton, D. Hounsell, & N. Entwistle (Eds.) 1984 The experience of learning (Edinburgh, Scottish Academic Press) Entwistle, 1990; Entwistle, McCune, & Walker, 2001; Entwistle & Tait, 1994; Entwistle, Meyer & Tait, 1991: Marton & Säljö,1976: Marton, 1986; Säljö, 1975.

15 KNOWLEDGE APPLICATION ENDURANCE an increase in knowledge or information about a subject acquired by gathering unrelated facts and without integration with what is already known an ability to apply new knowledge to particular tasks and problems but without transferability an ability to recall new information but usually only short-term Surface Learning

16 KNOWLEDGE APPLICATION ENDURANCE an increase in UNDERSTANDING of a subject involving grasp of underlying principles an ability to apply newly understood principles in a variety of different contexts and situations long-lasting personal change Deep Learning

17 1. Learning Theory 2. Methods of Graphic Organisation 3. Cognitive Structures 4. A Model of Teaching Technology use In HE New Learning Frameworks that can reveal to introduce that explains the development of alternative which we use to explain illustrated by 5. with considerable implications for and the design of Constructive Alignment to achieve

18 Concept Mapping Novak and Colleagues e.g. Novak & Gowan, 1986; Novak, 1998

19 meaningful learning Meaningful versus Rote Leaning Learners relevant prior knowledge meaningful material learner chooses network of neurones teacher meaningful learning rote learning encourages discourages to use not to use selected by assessed by produces constructive changes in stored in

20 the concept mapping method Concepts are arranged hierarchically on a page Concepts are written in boxes and linked with directional linking statements to form propositions Each concept can be used only once Each concept can be linked to as many as is desirable

21 INVERTEBRATE ANIMALS VERTEBRATE can be MARINE TERRESTRIAL e.g. crabs, lobsters e.g. beetles, flies FEATHERSFUR e.g. robins, penguins e.g. sheep, cats MORESPECIFICMORESPECIFIC COLD BLOODED ARTHROPODS WARM BLOODED can be insulated with are mostlycan be

22 link example event link key concept less general concept link less general concept specific concept specific concept link cross link example object link example event concept specific concept general concept general concept general concept cross link Novaks scoring system

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24 Reducing rich data to a number = 5/10 = 8/10 = 6/10 = 4/10 = 7/10 = 9/10 = 6.5/10

25 1. Learning Theory 2. Methods of Graphic Organisation 3. Cognitive Structures 4. A Model of Teaching Technology use In HE New Learning Frameworks that can reveal to introduce that explains the development of alternative which we use to explain illustrated by 5. with considerable implications for and the design of Constructive Alignment to achieve

26 a qualitative approach to concept map analysis Kinchin, Hay and colleagues Kinchin, Hay & Adams, 2000

27 CELLS DISEASES invade causing MEASLES ANTIBIOTICS BACTERIA only kill such as DISEASES MEASLES ANTIBIOTICS invade cause unaffected by cause CELLS MEASLESANTIBIOTICS BACTERIA caused by invadekilled by cause VIRUSES DISEASES caused by smaller than not killed by work outside A C B VIRUSES not treatable with smaller than VIRUSES CELLS BACTERIA

28 student maps comprise three basic structures

29 expert (teacher maps) are network structures lesson plans however, tend to be chains

30 CHAINS LINEAR CHANGE are so DIFFICULT RESTRUCTURE COLLAPSE because requires is CROSS- LINKS SIMPLE LEARNING READINESS CHANGIBLE indicate are SPOKES ARGUMENTCONTRADICTION COMPLEXITY sub- subsumes EXPERTIESE NETWORKS is indicative of ameliorated through A C B have no indicate are NON-LINEAR are comprise justified by STABLE which is

31 A BC DE E C A B D EXPERT STRUCTURE CONVENTIONAL TEACHING SEQUENCE E CABD STUDENT RECONSTRUCTION PR E C A B D STUDENT NON-ENGAGEMENT (memorization)

32 CELLSMEASLESANTIBIOTICS BACTERIA caused by invadekilled bycause VIRUSES DISEASES caused by smaller than not killed by work outside EXPERT VIRUSES CELLS DISEASES invade causing MEASLES ANTIBIOTICS BACTERIA not treatable with only kill such as LECTURE DISEASES MEASLES ANTIBIOTICS invade BACTERIA cause smaller than unaffected by cause LEARNING READY CELLS VIRUSES CELLS DISEASES invade causing MEASLES ANTIBIOTICS BACTERIA not treatable with only kill such as ROTE LEARNING VIRUSES CELLSMEASLESANTIBIOTICS BACTERIA caused by DISEASES caused by MEANING MAKER CELLSMEASLESANTIBIOTICS BACTERIA caused by invadekilled bycause VIRUSES DISEASES caused by smaller than not killed by work outside

33 using concept mapping knowledge and understanding become graphic representations change (that is indicative of learning) becomes measurable in quality terms and the consequences of different teaching strategies are observable

34 1. Learning Theory 2. Methods of Graphic Organisation 3. Cognitive Structures 4. A Model of Teaching Technology use In HE New Learning Frameworks that can reveal to introduce that explains the development of alternative which we use to explain illustrated by 5. with considerable implications for and the design of Constructive Alignment to achieve

35 if the approach is valid then some of the predicted outcomes of learning should be measurable deep versus surface learning (Marton) learning versus non learning (Jarvis) meaningful versus rote learning (Novak)

36 deep, surface and non-learning are observable phenomena Studies in Higher Education David B Hay (2007) Using concept maps to measure deep, surface and non- learning outcomes. Studies in Higher Education, 32 (1) due for publication Feb 2007

37 retained concepts newly added concepts

38 old concepts now rejected newly added concept never incorporated basic knowledge structure remains unchanged = non learning new knowledge added superficially = surface learning

39 non – learning and surface learning are observable phenomena – but so to is deep (or meaningful) learning

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41 old links broken meaningful learning old concepts rejected new concepts added new links forged between old and new

42 EXPERTNON-LEARNER SURFACE LEARNER MEANINGFUL LEARNER EXPERT x NO INTERACTION TRIVIAL INTERACTION based on undue repetition of transmission signal MEANINGFUL INTERACTION based on meaningful sharing of cognitive structures non learning surface learning meaningful learning

43 concept mapping can be used to measure learning quality but it also provides a framework for the constructive alignment of teaching and learning

44 facilitate sharing of understanding of the rich and complex knowledge structures that belie prescriptive lesson plans this is because concept mapping can also:

45 1. Learning Theory 2. Methods of Graphic Organisation 3. Cognitive Structures 4. A Model of Teaching Technology use In HE New Learning Frameworks that can reveal to introduce that explains the development of alternative which we use to explain illustrated by 5. with considerable implications for and the design of Constructive Alignment to achieve

46 conventional lesson plans, lectures, practicals and other formal or organised learning activities tend towards linearity this promotes a surface approach to learning that is commonly unwarranted

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48 often the student who follows the lecture route is ignorant of any other route through the over- arching knowledge structure

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50 in fact many different routes exist and the knowledge and understanding developed by an awareness of these routes is not to be foregone if the novice is to become and expert

51 Earls Court Holborn

52 furthermore, expert status is only really attained when the learner comes to be able to locate what they know and understand in a broader context

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56 meaningful teaching is the art of selecting appropriate routes through complex networks of expert understanding

57 meaningful learning is the art of navigation through chains of expression in order to discover underlying networks of understanding

58 concept mapping allows the knowledge and understanding of experts to be organised in systematic ways that permit the designation of learning routes through rich and complex subject networks

59 when they do so they will be able to choose to learn in ways that are strategically appropriate students can follow these routes and explore new routes for themselves

60 this is a justified approach grounded in research and in the principles of constructive alignment it aims to balance the goals of self- directed and student centred learning with the traditions of didactic and expert led teaching in higher education

61 The approach has application in all areas of teaching and learning but it is likely to have particular impact in the design and development of educational technology

62 we would argue that to date there is no such thing as a pedagogy of e-learning, but that when lecturers are provided with concept mapping tools for organising knowledge and information and for developing routes of learning through these networks then e-learning will have pedagogy

63 far from replacing the lecturer, educational technology will re- asserting the central role of the academic expert as author of meaningful learning experiences and as the agent of support for student progression towards expert status David B Hay and Ian M Kinchin

64 quality of learning expert (teacher) learning routes students cognitive network maps plans chooses In order to develop own through CONCEPT MAPS when they themselves become the


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