Presentation on theme: "Kendall Richards Dr Nick Pilcher Academic Support Advisor FECCI."— Presentation transcript:
Kendall Richards Dr Nick Pilcher Academic Support Advisor FECCI Lecturer in in-sessional EAP NUBS Edinburgh Napier University A scaffolding framework for dialogicality, or: reanimating assessment terms with an anti- glossary approach
Key assessment terms: Account for Critically Evaluate DistinguishInterpretState AnalyseDefineEvaluateJustifySummarise Comment on DescribeExamineNarrate To what extent CompareDefineExplainOutlineTrace ContrastDiscussIllustrateRelate
Are they key terms?
Staged Focus Group Home Lecturer Focus Group Home Student Focus Group Chinese Lecturer Focus Group Chinese Student Focus Group Chinese Lecturer and Student Focus Group Home Lecturer and Student Focus Group Home and Chinese Lecturer and Student Focus Group
What we focused on Positive / negative? Meaning (in English or Chinese) What do they want you to do? Same in UK and China? Confident about them? Where did you learn about these words? How did you learn about them? Have your understandings of these words changed at all since you have been at university? How? Why?
Findings We found wildly differing constructs of key terms such as discuss and critically evaluate dependent upon a number of factors which we detail here: But first – your turn to organise them
Language In Chinese discuss means to exchange your opinion with another or much more other people. So we can never discuss by yourself...if we say discuss it is weird because you cannot discuss by yourself. Critically evaluate – UK based Chinese lecturers - Chinese students and British students use this word very differently. British students would know its to make comments, to critically analyse or discuss while Chinese students often write completely based on what is given, descriptive, without their own understanding and views, or just criticise, list all the negative points without including any positive points. Therefore, this is a very important word.
Culture Summarise- UK based Chinese lecturers -- there shouldnt be any ambiguity in this one UK based Chinese lecturers -- a precise meaning [of critically evaluate] can only be determined when it is put in the real situation… different cultures mean different intentions. UK lecturers- Summarise is a really tricky thing to get students to do. UK students -Ive been brought up in a culture that you respect these people because theyve got where they are today and my first reaction would be not to even question them
Stakeholder UK student Ohh I hate this one…I dont really know what it means to discuss and I often failed on it...well not fail but ahh you know not do so well…I read somewhere in one book, that discuss means that you have to highlight the most important points of certain arguments and either compare or contrast them [I - And does that make sense to you?] No! (Laughter) UK lecturer Thats good un use it all the time…discuss must contain the elements of critically appraise… analyse review its got synthesis its got scholarship its got the lot in discuss UK lecturers – summarise Its a difficult one because its synthesising stuff its something students find hard…I might ask it in a viva. Chinese students – summarise Just to finish off, give em say 5 bullet points or actually the main elements.
Subject to actually get an engineers description of soil requires certain tests requires certain calculations. Ask Engineers to trace and theyll be out with the greaseproof paper drawing pictures. obviously coming from English and film studies prove is not really a word that we…really use, it would be more... justify your argument
Development over time I tell our students, it may be better if you havent learnt it in China, so that you would learnt in English first hand, there wont be misunderstanding... [and] if you know a little in Chinese but dont thoroughly understand it, that would be worse. Many words cant be converted, misunderstanding can easily happen. It would be better if its a blank slate. I think I was memorising vocabulary before, and felt the meanings of the words are similar. Since I came here, I see them in context, and can feel the subtle differences between them, and not like when I was in China.
Development over time My understanding of all these words has changed. when it comes to me Im like no, thats a stupid question hes gonna think Im stupid, I think its a whole confidence thing [general agreement]. Justify Discuss Critically Evaluate Analyse theyre confidence issues its having the confidence to just to go for it [general agreement] I think…my understanding of all of these words has changed hugely since I was at university
Level and weight It depends on the level of the module, not on the year that the student is in I find that define the word for the 5 mark question or for summary and the discuss is for 20 marks. I would use Outline for a 5 mark question or for 2 nd year where I would use Summarise with the 4 th years because I think Summarise is a really tricky thing to get students to do Describe if its worth 1 is very different from describe if its worth 5.
Some theory underpinning our approach Or – and now a picture round…..your starter for 10 is……
Ruminating on the nine years he had spent writing the first proper English dictionary, [Dr Johnson] recalled how he had set out to fix our language. But he had found that this was folly: language was in a constant state of lively mutability and could not be embalmed (Mullan 2010:3). Dr Samuel Johnson (1709 – 1784)
Words are symbols that assume a shared memory (Borges 1979:33) Jose Luis Borges (1899 – 1986)
Language, far from being a static entity, with fixed meanings, as is implied in a dictionary for example, is a living, social phenomenon dynamically carrying and contributing to the meanings that can be made... who is being addressed, what is being addressed – and the particular meanings, or accents that wordings develop within specific sociohistorical contexts. (2003:198) Dr Theresa Lillis
There are a number of Language Games such as Giving orders, and obeying them – Describing the appearance of an object, or giving its measurements…..speculating about an event…..Presenting the results of an experiment in tables and diagrams (Wittgenstein 1953: PI23). Ludwig Wittgenstein (1889 – 1951)
Topics VIII Questioner and Answerer Aristotle (384 – 322 BC)
The Enemy within Part 1 Published Source Defining key termsCopies Loans Cottrell (2008:179) Analyse – examine in very close detail; identify important points and chief features Critically evaluate – weigh arguments for and against something, assessing the strength of the evidence on both sides. Use criteria to guide your assessment of which opinions, theories, models or items are preferable Turner et al (2008:89) You are required to produce an argument in almost every form of assessment that you do at university…. For example, the inclusion of instruction words such as discuss, analyse, evaluate the claim that..., critically evaluate the theory... to what extent... alert you to the need for an argument Tracy (2002:115) Discuss – examine important aspects of; argue all sides before drawing a conclusion one way; outline the arguments, backing them up with evidence; consider the implications Define – give exact meaning of Trace – show how a topic has developed from the beginning to end 21
The Enemy within Part 2 sound like stupid crap, no... p.s try dictionary.com
Fighting the Enemy within Part 1 L – Dictionarys a hell of a powerful study... its a magic book it tells you the meaning of stuff, and in that respect its brilliant and it forces me to then think... if Ive written down Discuss would I have written what the dictionary said? And its written by far cleverer people than me, SA – Well what I find Ive Ive started to do... Im finding words and say small phrases and... actually just copy and paste them onto Google Or Wikipedia…and reading through what their understanding of it is coz... rather than one sentence youll get a whole paragraph on it, and it actually it helps me understand what actually the word means [general agreement] within the sense of what Ive originally seen it like SB – You see the thing is with me I would, I would actually disagree with you [the lecturer] with the dictionary erm because the dictionaryll tell you what it means... but it... doesnt tell you how to put it into context it might give you... maybe one sentence containing the word but itll no turn round to me and say... I need to use ethnography in this kind of context L – Yeh I know what you mean I could look up ethnography and I wouldnt know when to use it exactly yeh uh huh fair point.
Fighting the Enemy within Part 2 What do you do when you critically evaluate academically? If the question with the word define in it is worth 5 marks how is it different from one where it is worth 1 mark? How? Were you asked to discuss at school? If yes, do you think you have to write something different at university? Is it possible for students of your generation to critically evaluate the work of professors and other researchers? In China, if you are asked to summarise what are you expected to do?
Term Weighting Level Culture Stakeholder Language Time Subject Language Games assumed shared memories Language as fluid Questioner and answerer
References Aristotle, Topics. WA Pickard-Cambridge: Books.... Paperback: 108 pages; Publisher: Digireads.com (January 1, 2006) Borges, J. L., Di, G. N. T., Reid, A., & Borges, J. L. (1979). The book of sand ; translated [from the Spanish] by Norman Thomas de Giovanni ; [and], The gold of the tigers : selected later poems ; translated [from the Spanish] by Alastair Reid / [by] Jorge Luis Borges. London: Allen Lane. Cottrell, S. (2008). The study skills handbook. Palgrave study guides. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Lillis, T (2003) Student Writing as Academic Literacies: Drawing on Bakhtin to Move from Critique to Design LANGUAGE AND EDUCATION Vol.17,No. 3,2003 pp 192 – 207 Mullan, John (2010) The folly of preserving English in aspic G2 Magazine, Guardian , p3 Tracy, E. (2002). The student's guide to exam success. Buckingham [England: Open University Press. Turner, K, Ireland, L, Krenus, B, Pointon, L (2008). Essential academic skills. South Melbourne, Victoria, Australia: Oxford University Press. Wittgenstein, L. (1953) Philosophical investigations. Oxford: Blackwell Wordle.net