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SP500 – Qualitative methods – conversation analysis Week 1 – Introduction Week 2 – Selecting your files to transcribe and using PRAAT Week 3 – Transcription.

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Presentation on theme: "SP500 – Qualitative methods – conversation analysis Week 1 – Introduction Week 2 – Selecting your files to transcribe and using PRAAT Week 3 – Transcription."— Presentation transcript:

1 SP500 – Qualitative methods – conversation analysis Week 1 – Introduction Week 2 – Selecting your files to transcribe and using PRAAT Week 3 – Transcription Week 4 – Analysis Week 5 – Write up Praat = Praat is a program for speech analysis and synthesis see

2 Discourse and power 1. Foucault (1972; 1977) and discursive epistemes (knowledge discourses) –The interdependence between discourse and power –The relation between power and knowledge – systems of power bring forth different types of knowledge, which in turn produces effects on people who then reproduce the original power relation

3 Week 2 – Selecting your files to transcribe and getting used to using PRAAT (a) Power and talk – thinking about institutional talk and role relationships (b) You are comparing examples so as to uncover any evidence that people use the structures of talk to exert or resist specific role-relations in context

4 Qualitative methods & conversation analysis: comparing non-institutional (informal) talk with institutional talk –Informal talk (a) students talking (b) talk between mother and daughter –Institutional talk (c) doctor-patient interaction (d) courtroom talk (e) classroom talk (f) police-suspect talk (g) radio phone-in talk (h) job interview (i) meeting

5 Turn-taking rules RULE 1: This rule applies to the first transition relevant place of any turn (a) If the current speaker selects the next speaker during the current turn then the current speaker must stop speaking and the next speaker must speak next. And he/she must speak next at the first transition relevant place after this 'next speaker' selection (b) If the speaker does not select a next speaker during a current turn, then anybody else present (other parties) can self-select and the first person to do this will gain 'speaker rights' at the next turn. (c) If the current speaker has not selected the next speaker and nobody else self- selects then the speaker can continue (although this is not a requirement). In doing so he/she gains a right to have a further turn-constructional unit. RULE 2: When rule 1 (c) has been applied by the current speaker, then at the next transition relevant pause, rules 1 (a) to 1 (c) apply again, and keep reapplying until speaker change is accomplished. The set of rules and the elements used by people to indicate transition relevant places are conceived of as a system - a system which is designed to faciliate the 'turn-taking' organisation central to conversation. How to do conversation analysis: a brief guide

6 A turn-taking check-list (for observing and/or analysing recorded conversation). (Adapted from Sacks, Schlegoff and Jefferson, 1974). 1. Speaker-change recurs, or at least occurs 2. Overwhelmingly, one party speaks at a time 3. Occurrences of more than one speaker at a time are common, but brief 4. Transitions (from one turn to the next) with no gap and no overlap are common. Together with transitions characterised by slight gap or slight overlap, they make up the vast majority of transitions. 5. Turn order is not fixed, but varies 6. Turn size is not fixed, but varies 7. Length of conversation is not specified in advance 8. What parties say is not specified in advance 9. Relative distribution of turns is not specified in advance 10. Number of parties can vary 11. Talk can be continuous or discontinuous 12. Turn allocation techniques are obviously mixed (see rules above). 13. Various turn-constructional links are employed, e.g., turn can be projected one word long or they can be sentential in length 14. Repair mechanisms exist for dealing with turn-taking errors and violations, e.g., if two parties find themselves talking at the same time, one of them will stop prematurely, thus repairing the trouble.

7 Guide for the practical:

8 An example transcript

9 SP500 – Qualitative methods – conversation analysis Week 1 – Introduction Week 2 – Selecting your files to transcribe and using PRAAT Week 3 – Transcription Week 4 – Analysis Week 5 – Write up Praat = Praat is a program for speech analysis and synthesis see


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