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No. 1 for Tourism Studies The Guardian, 2004, 2005, 2006 International Opportunities and Challenges for Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism Education.

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Presentation on theme: "No. 1 for Tourism Studies The Guardian, 2004, 2005, 2006 International Opportunities and Challenges for Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism Education."— Presentation transcript:

1 No. 1 for Tourism Studies The Guardian, 2004, 2005, 2006 International Opportunities and Challenges for Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism Education Its a Small World – HEA Conference HEA Network for HLST

2 Its a Small World The Challenge of Multi National/Cultural Audiences David Airey Professor of Tourism Management & Pro-Vice-Chancellor University of Surrey

3 Its a Small World …..most Universities have designated international departments responsible for recruitment and marketing, the administration associated with processing applications and the orientation and continued pastoral care of international students. Consequently it would seem appropriate that once international students have been attracted to a University, initiatives would be undertaken to ensure that the student has an enjoyable learning experience Indeed it has been suggested that institutions should provide holistic support services for (international) students (Jennings 2001, p50) (Barron, 2005, p356)

4 Its a Small World Internationalisation internationalisation of higher education is the process of integrating an international/intercultural dimension into teaching, research and service of the institution (Knight, 1997) 1.International student programmes 2.International student support services 3.Offshore delivery and distance education 4.Internationalisation of curriculum and experiences 5.Internationalisation technical assistance 6.Internationalisation of research (Back, Davis and Olsen, 1996) Quoted in Ball (Link 16 2006)

5 Its a Small World Outline Background – where we have come from? Some Figures – what is the scale and importance? What do international students value? Responding to different learning styles?

6 Its a Small World Background Where we have come from? THEN

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10 No. 1 for Tourism Studies The Guardian, 2004, 2005, 2006

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12 Professor Andrew Lockwood

13 Professor David Botterill

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17 Its a Small World Background Where we have come from? A BIT LATER

18 Dr Dimitrios Buhalis Professor Adele Ladkin

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20 Its a Small World Background Where we have come from NOW

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24 Its a Small World Some Figures what is the scale and importance?

25 Its a Small World DomicileNos% EU100,0004 Non EU218,3959 Total international students318,39513 Total Students2,423,590100 International Students in the UK 2004/05 Source: UKCOSA and HESA

26 Its a Small World Level of StudyNos% PGR45,44014 PGT106,91534 PG Other13,4354 First degree123,55039 Other undergraduate29,0559 Total318,395100 International Students in the UK 2004/05 Source: UKCOSA

27 Its a Small World OriginNos% of all internat China (PRC)52,67516 India16,6855 USA14,3855 Malaysia11,4754 Hong Kong10,7804 Nigeria8,1453 Pakistan6,5452 Japan6,1802 International Students (non EU) in the UK 2004/05 Source: UKCOSA

28 Its a Small World OriginNos% of all internat Greece22,8257 Rep of Ireland16,3455 Germany12,5554 France11.6854 Spain6,0002 International (EU) Students in the UK 2004/05 Source: UKCOSA

29 Its a Small World InstitutionNos% of institution Warwick7,53025 London Met7,09023 Manchester7,05518 Middlesex6,00024 Nottingham5,88518 Cambridge5,68522 Westminster5,65521 UCL5,64029 International Students in the UK 2004/05 Source: UKCOSA

30 Its a Small World Year (of which) Non EU Total 1994/5163,713 1995/6196,346 1996/7108,935198,064 2003/4203,210300,055 2004/5218,395318,400 International Students in the UK 1994-2004 Source: HESA

31 Its a Small World Domicile19962005 Home268,289360,244 EU13,03717,247 Overseas13,58127,878 Total295,807405,369 Student HE acceptances in the UK 1996-2005 Source: UCAS

32 Its a Small World DomicileTourismSport Science 1996200519962005 Home172531378853 EU113 (6%) 328 (9%) 144 (2%) Overseas86 (5%) 249 (7%) 88 (1%) Total192437149085 Student HE acceptances in the UK 1996-2005 Source: UCAS

33 Its a Small World What do International Students Value (worry about)? Source 1: UKCOSA (2004), International Students in UK Universities and Colleges, Broadening Our Horizons, London: UKCOSA

34 Its a Small World Source: adapted from UKCOSA (2004

35 Its a Small World Areas of Concern (@= important initially *=important now) Accommodation@ Financial Problems@* Finding Part-time work* Balancing Study with p-t Work Assessments@* UK study methods@ Course Content Relations with staff English Language Mixing with UK Students@* Feeling Homesick Keeping in Touch with Family Adapting to UK Culture Food Health Visa/Immigration Religious Needs Bringing Family Members Source: UKCOSA (2004)

36 Its a Small World What do International Students Value (worry about)? Source 2: Middlehurst, R. & Woodfield, S. (2006) 'International activity or internationalisation strategy? A case-study of institutional practice and experience'. Paper presented at the 28th Annual EAIR Forum, 30 August to 1 September 2006, University LUISS Guido Carli. Rome, Italy. Date of Presentation: 31/08/06

37 Its a Small World Categories of 'student experience' and issues arising for international students (Source: Middlehurst & Woodfield) Category of 'experience' Issues for international students Academic English language difficulties affect home & overseas students; Pedagogical differences require exploration and orientation (for staff and students) Proactive support valued Academic representation at programme level important Education, social & welfare issues closely linked More flexibility in academic delivery needed Currency of qualifications is key Evidence from NSS useful in focusing attention & actions

38 Its a Small World Categories of 'student experience' and issues arising for international students (Source: Middlehurst & Woodfield) Category of 'experience' Issues for international students Social Different interests and requirements from many home students - implications for optional and alternative services Societies very important for welfare and support Need a 'social strategy' for students

39 Its a Small World Categories of 'student experience' and issues arising for international students (Source: Middlehurst & Woodfield) Category of 'experience' Issues for international students Cultural Different priorities and needs; importance of communal activity and community events in many countries 'International experience' useful for cultural understanding and of potential benefit to all students

40 Its a Small World Categories of 'student experience' and issues arising for international students (Source: Middlehurst & Woodfield) Category of 'experience' Issues for international students Administrative (1) Categories of students (home, EU, international) are unhelpful (and not related to experiences) Procedures and committees not integrated according to student needs; Link between the international and cultural diversity agendas Timing of university calendar creates difficulties Visa difficulties prior to entry and police checks in UK cause difficulties

41 Its a Small World Categories of 'student experience' and issues arising for international students (Source: Middlehurst & Woodfield) Category of 'experience' Issues for international students Administrative (2) Involvement in institution-level forums leading to action is valued University and SU data could be complementary, but sometimes contradictory Students keen to be involved in relevant University projects Need for support to assist students to study abroad

42 Its a Small World Categories of 'student experience' and issues arising for international students (Source: Middlehurst & Woodfield) Category of 'experience' Issues for international students Environmental Distance from home a problem for many students Cost of study high Barriers to working, or while studying and working exist Accommodation needs and catering requirements differ from home students

43 Its a Small World What do International Students Value (worry about)? Source 3: Pereda MH (2006) An Examination of the Impact of Service Quality Dimensions on Students Satisfaction in Higher Education in the UK, University of Surrey, unpublished PhD thesis

44 Its a Small World International Students of Hospitality and Tourism Reason for EnrollingN=308 International image of University184 English spoken152 Course content142 Reputation at home103 Facilities91

45 Its a Small World Dimensions Mean (7 point scale) Physical Quality Gardens and open areas are kept clean 5.22 Rooms have internet connection 5.14 Classrooms have up-to-date teaching support equipment 5.10 University has modern computers with latest progs 5.06 Students accommodation is safe 4.66 The university has sufficient residential accommodation 4.66 International Students – Importance of items 1

46 Its a Small World DimensionsMean (7 point scale) Interactive quality Course is intellectually challenging5.02 Staff react politely to students enquiries4.71 It is easy to make friends on campus4.70 The administrative staff are helpful4.60 Lecturers stimulate critical analysis4.56

47 Its a Small World DimensionsMean (7 point scale) Corporative quality The university takes the lead in research4.85 A degree from this university improves employment prospects 4.85 The university maintains links with international employment networks 4.70 A degree from this university is well recognised internationally 4.69 The university is well recognised for its academic programmes 4.66

48 Its a Small World Service Quality Scale – Factor Loading Structure Factor Factor 1 Recognition The ranking of the school is high A degree from this university is well recognised internationally The university takes the lead in research A degree from this university takes the lead in my home country My course is intellectually challenging Factor 2 Quality of Instruction and Interaction with Faculty Lecturers have adequate time for consultation Lecturers can be easily contacted individual There are clear and reasonable requirements for each module Lecturers stimulate critical analysis Feedback from coursework is adequate

49 Its a Small World Service Quality Scale – Factor Loading Structure Factor Factor 3 Sufficiency of Resources The campus computers are sufficient for the student population Adequate printer facilities are available The common areas in the university accommodation are adequate for the number of students The university has sufficient residential accommodation Factor 4 Quality of Facilities The university has plenty of sports facilities The sports centre as modern equipment The classrooms have up-to-date teaching support equipment The gardens and open areas on campus are kept clean

50 Its a Small World Value for Money Value scale 1=low, 7=high % 110 216 313 431 520 67 73

51 Its a Small World Responding to different learning styles? Source: Barron, P. 2005, "Cultural Issues in Learning," in An International Handbook of Tourism Education, D. Airey & J. Tribe, eds., Elsevier, Oxford, pp. 353-366.

52 Its a Small World Western View of Confucian Heritage Students as Learners (from literature) PositiveNegative High achievers, Diligent note takers, Well disciplined, Hard working, Quiet Respectful Good attendees Rote learners Memory rather than understanding Lacking self management Requires specific reading Passive Non participative

53 Its a Small World Learning Issues and Problems for CHC Students Time management Revision skills English language skills Examination skills Classroom discussion Rely on memorising as a learning strategy Problem of not one correct answer Racist incidents Presentations Authority of teacher Compensation (working harder, more notes, rely on international students Reliance on books Concept of plagiarism Family pressure Lack of understanding of W educators

54 Its a Small World Preferred Learning Styles of CHC and non CHC International Students (Australia) Reflector (stand back, observe, consider) Activist

55 Its a Small World Learning Issues/Problems (CHC Students Australia)

56 Its a Small World Use of references Link theory practice Preparing presentations Independent research Source: Barron (2005) Nos

57 Its a Small World

58 Overall reaction Good, good because here things are very interesting and after you have finished studying your subject, you still remember things. You still remember things you were studying in your previous semester


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