14Culture Ladder Safety Culture Ladder The best way to understand our culture is in terms of an evolutionary ladder. Each level has distinct characteristics and is a progression on the one before.Looking at it like this provides a route map, where every team, or company has a certain level of cultural maturity and can see which rung of the ladder they are on, where they have been and what the next step looks like.The range runs from the Pathological, through the Reactive to the Calculative and then on to Proactive and the final stage, that we call the Generative.Pathological, is where people don’t really care about Safety let alone Health and the Environment, and are only driven by regulatory compliance and or not getting caught. We probably all recognise this from the past but is something we have hopefully move beyond. People say things like “it’s a dangerous business”,Reactive, is where safety is taken seriously, but only when gets sufficient attention after things have already gone wrong. People say things like “you have to understand it is different here”, “you have to look out for yourself”, or “those who have the accidents are those who cause them”.At the reactive level managers take safety seriously, but feel frustrated about how the workforce won’t do what they are told. ‘If only they would do what they are supposed to’, ‘we need to force compliance’.The next level, Calculative, is where an organization is comfortable with systems and numbers. The HSE-MS has been implemented successfully and because HSE is taken very seriously, there is a major concentration upon the statistics – bonuses are tied to them, contractors are rated in terms of their safety record, not just because they are the cheapest. Lots of data is collected and analysed, we are comfortable making process and system changes. There is a plethora of audits and people begin to feel they have cracked it. Nevertheless businesses at this level still have fatalities and are surprised when these occur.Proactive is where Shell is aiming for. It is moving away from from managing HSE based on what has happened in the past to really looking forward. Not just working to prevent last week’s accident, it is starting to consider what might go wrong in the future and take steps before being forced to. Proactive organisations are those where the workforce start to be involved in practice, as well as in management statements of intent. Unlike the Calculative, where the HSE department still shoulders a lot of the responsibility, in Proactive organisations the Line begins to take over the HSE function, while HSE personnel reduce in numbers and provide advice rather than execution. Indicators become increasingly process-orientedo Are we doing the right things, - rather than just focused on incidentso Have we had any accidents?It is quite simply about creating an environment that encourages the behaviours and beliefs that will deliver lasting improvements in our performance both HSE and beyond.- As an organisation climbs up the ladder there the level of informedness and trust increases with people offering to accept accountabilities (‘you can count on me’) rather than just being told they will be held accountable for some outcome.Informedness is about mangers knowing what is happening in their organisation and where all the problems are, and the workforce knowing exactly what managers expect – no mixed messages. Because managers and workers are aligned, this builds two-way trust. Because people know what is expected and are trusted to do it, there is less need for bureaucracy, audits and supervision, so workload decreases from after the Calculative stageGenerative organizations set very high standards and attempt to exceed them rather than being satisfied with minimum compliance. They are brutally honest about failure, but use it to improve, not to blame. They don’t expect to get it right, they just expect to get better. Management knows what is really going on, because the workforce is willing to tell them and trusts them not to over-react on hearing bad news. People live in a state of chronic unease, trying to be as informed as possible, because it prepares them for whatever will be thrown at them next.
15Culture Ladder Chronic unease (Mindfulness) GENERATIVEChronic unease (Mindfulness)Safety seen as a profit centreNew ideas are welcomedPROACTIVEResources are available to fix things before an accidentManagement is open but still obsessed with statisticsProcedures are “owned” by the workforceCALCULATIVEWe have our HSE-Management System – we’ve cracked it!Lots and lots of auditsWe collect lots of statisticsREACTIVEWe are serious, but why don’t they do what they’re told?Lots of discussions to re-classify accidentsYou have to consider the condition under which we are workingPATHOLOGICALThe lawyers/regulator said it was OKI’ve done my bit for HSE this yearOf course we have accidents, it’s a dangerous businessSack the idiot who had the accident
16Characteristics of a “Proactive” Culture Focus on correcting Latent ConditionsFocus on Leading IndicatorsAccountabilities are clear and well understoodIndividual Consequences are ‘fair and just’ and well understoodInterventions are normal and welcomedIncreasingly InformedIncreasing Trust and Accountability
17Overall Objectives of the Hearts & Minds program: People doing the right things naturally rather than forcing themLasting change
18Hearts and Minds tools - design premises Established theories (e.g. Change Processes, Tripod, BBSM, etc)Pleasant, well designed and printed, Fun, ShortFit for local work environment and national/work cultureNot another major management initiativeBuild on methods that people are used to and that work wellNo need for outside facilitation; accessible scienceFor small groups, finding ways to solve their problemsCreating change, not just diagnosisParticular highlight for this audience:Fit for national cultureBuilding on what is already in place
22Introducing Hearts and Minds A Balanced ApproachIntroducing Hearts and MindsTOP-DOWNShow an interest, ask questionsAsk about successesSet clear expectationsSpeak enthusiastically about itPraise peopleUse some tools yourselfSupport pull from the bottomBOTTOM-UPInvolve the workforceCreate enthusiasm and ownership“Breed believers” not train the trainerMake it fun, pleasant“Fishing” and “pull”
23Conclusion The idea is simple A project will succeed if people want to achieve it and feel personally involvedTools are constructed to support the development of a ‘Culture of Safety’Don’t rushResults will take time