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Does e Stand for Everything? Maggie McPherson University of Sheffield Department Information Studies.

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Presentation on theme: "Does e Stand for Everything? Maggie McPherson University of Sheffield Department Information Studies."— Presentation transcript:

1 Does e Stand for Everything? Maggie McPherson University of Sheffield Department Information Studies

2 Outline of Session Introduction eLearning - Discussion of Issues Workshop Debate - Focus group activity Summary & Conclusions

3 Introduction Background Personal experience of e-Learning Involved in Distance Ed for over ten years Currently doing ongoing research in e-Learning Collaborative work with Dr Miguel Nunes

4 Issues to be addressed Define Critical Success Factors in Context Organisational and Management Issues Technological Issues Curriculum Development Issues Educational Systems Design Issues eLearning Delivery Issues

5 Definitions of CSFs: Critical success factors are those handful of things that within someones job must go right for the organisation to flourish. They are factors that the manager wishes to keep a constant eye upon. Robson (1997 p.155) Critical success factors are those components of strategy where the organisation must excel to out perform competition. Johnson and Scholes (1999 p.192)

6 Critical Success Factor (CSFs) Analysis An established management research method, first proposed by Rockhart in 1979, as a means of identifying the factors that are required for an organisation to thrive. In this session, however, this means looking at CSFs for eLearning identified by participants in previous workshops and attempting to reach a concensus on what the key factors might be

7 HEIs: E-Learning Stakeholders Organisational Setting Organisational Strategists and Policy Makers Senior Managers and Administrators Dept. Heads and Administrators Technological Infrastructure Computing Services (MLEs, VLEs, CMC) Technicians to Support Teaching and Learning Curriculum Development Academic Staff Educational Specialists Subject Matter Experts Academic Involvement High Low High Institutional Involvement Educational Systems Design Academic Staff ICT Specialists Educational Specialists Academic Staff Researchers Tutors Students Delivery McPherson & Nunes, 2004

8 Organisational Issues

9 eLearning Organisational Challenges Strategic Issues at Cultural/Managerial Level: Decisions for positioning of university Need for explicit eLearning strategies Lack of expertise in creating strategies Human resources - opportunities and constraints National funding - competition vs. co-operation HE competition worldwide (e.g. US, Australia) Corporate eLearning providers emerging

10 Implementation Issues: Staff motivational issues need to be addressed Customs and practice - barriers to change HE Reward systems not aligned with teaching - Overcome academics wariness of new methods Academic contracts may impede innovation HE systems slow to change - Senior staff may lack change management skills eLearning Organisational Challenges

11 Technologies for Learning and Teaching

12 eLearning Technologies Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs) Managed Learning Environments (MLEs) Computer Medicated Communication (CMC) Specific Teaching and Learning Tools

13 Learning Environments Learning Environments are developed to: - address an identified learning need - resolve a particular educational problem Learning Environments should be : - linked to the solution of the problem

14 Learning Environments Learning Environments are essentially constructs that promote learning by supporting interactions between: - the tutor - the learner and her/his peers - the subject matter, and the - learning materials These interactions may, or may not, be computer mediated

15 Virtual Learning Environments VLEs should be conceived, designed and implemented using an appropriate Educational System Design (ESD) framework that ranges from curriculum design to course delivery

16 Considerations for Development of VLEs, MLEs, and e-Learning Tools In designing and developing these environments you need to consider: - Information, Communication Technology (ICT) vs. Face-to-Face (F2F) components - Technical issues, e.g. security - Educational and subject matter specialisms - Staff and support issues, e.g. IP - Strategic needs of the Institution

17 Curriculum Development

18 A curriculum can be defined as aplanned educational experience It is likely to involve: - Academic Staff - Educational Specialists - Subject Matter Experts Designing a curriculum involves: - doing a needs analysis - deciding on initial team - analysing all stakeholders - deciding on learning objectives - allocating resources

19 Designing an e-Learning curriculum involves: - doing a needs analysis - assessing suitability for eLearning - deciding on initial team - analysing all stakeholders - deciding on learning objectives - allocating resources Curriculum Design Processes

20 Select a Suitable Pedagogical Model, e.g. Nunes & McPherson (2002) Explicit Learning Materials Course Materials Case-Studies Links to relevant Web Sites Learning Activities Individual Learning Activities Group Learning Activities Assessed Activities The Learner The Peers The Tutor Virtual Learning Environment Peer Support, Socialisation Self Reflection Individual Construction of Knowledge Tutoring, Scaffolding and Pastoral Support Social negotiation. Collaboration, Co-operation

21 eLearning Curriculum Development Philosophy Learning Models Pedagogical Strategy Pedagogical Tactics Tasks Environment for Course Learning Activities Learning Outcomes McPherson & Nunes, 2004 Pedagogical Model Curriculum Design

22 Educational Systems Design

23 ESD must focus on: …… identifying and implementing a learning environment combining pedagogical, subject matter and tutoring issues (Moore, 1991; Croft, 1993, Nunes, 1999)

24 Implementing ESD Recognize that complex e-learning environments means more than: - designing a few screens - specifying their sequence Key to development of successful e-learning environments is: - recognising both technical and pedagogical components of educational design - integrating them in a coherent framework

25 Implications for ESD The process of design and development is: - one of co-construction and negotiation, - rather than interpretation of students needs Rapid prototyping is thought to be an ideal approach, which: - facilitates the integration of different agents in educational software development, i.e. subject matter experts, designers & students

26 Educational Systems Design An ESD Framework: Construction not InterpretationConstruction not Interpretation Framework not a MethodologyFramework not a Methodology Based on a Rapid Prototyping ApproachBased on a Rapid Prototyping Approach Recursive Design and DevelopmentRecursive Design and Development Required for Both Individual and Team-based ProjectsRequired for Both Individual and Team-based Projects Curriculum Design Development of different components CMC facilities Reference materials Other Components Student and Tutor Feedback Evaluation Course Delivery General ESD framework adapted from Croft (1993) and Nunes (1999) Design and Specification of the Learning Environment Explicit Web Materials

27 Delivery of eLearning

28 The eLearning Delivery Design Must consider: - target audience - student background - delivery mode Often needs a team approach: - Academic staff - Researchers - Tutors - Support staff

29 Delivering an eLearning Course Implementation model needs careful thought Module One Module Two Module Five Virtual Social Space Alumni Involvement Tutor Delivery and Support Online Tutor Training Module One Induction Module Module Two Module Five Induction Module

30 eLearning Delivery Issues Particular consideration to be given to: - Tutoring and counselling processes - Prepared self-study learning materials - Readily available learning resources - Student group activities

31 Time for some interaction! This workshop forms part of on-going research at the University of Sheffield At this point, you are invited to join this co-operative inquiry and to carry out a eLearning Critical Success Factor (CSF) Analysis

32 Concluding Reflections ICT offers great potential for HE, however … challenges must be faced if eLearning implementation is to be effective: - Policy-makers must decide and support strategy - Managers, technologists and educationalists must work together - Academics need training to implement changes to best advantage - Research to incorporate all stakeholder views

33 Educational Management Action Research Evaluation Tasks Course Environment Learning Activities Learning Outcomes McPherson & Nunes, 2004 Philosophy Learning Models Pedagogical Strategy Pedagogical Tactics

34 Closing Discussion Any Comments or Questions? Contact Details: Maggie McPherson Maggie McPherson Tel: Tel:

35 Option 1: Do nothing about it! (courtesy of Dr Amer Al Rawas,Sultan Qaboos University, Oman)

36 Option 2: Rush to it ! (courtesy of Dr Amer Al Rawas,Sultan Qaboos University, Oman)

37 Option 3: Take it seriously! (courtesy of Dr Amer Al Rawas,Sultan Qaboos University, Oman)


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