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Transnational Education – new model of learning? Kevin Van-Cauter, Higher Education Adviser, the British Council
Definitions of TNE All types of higher education study programmes, or sets of courses of study, or educational services (including distance education) in which the learners are located in a different country from the one where the awarding institution is based. Such programmes may […] operate independently of any national education system. OECD guidelines (2005)
The global demand for higher education is forecast to increase from 97 million in 2000 to 263 million in 2025 Source: Global Student Mobility 2025 IDP Education Australia Currently, the largest part of existing higher education capacity globally is not centred in parts of the world that will experience substantial growth over the next 20 years Source: Atlas of Student Mobility Institute of International Education, New York
Summary There are now more overseas students studying for UK qualifications abroad than there are on courses at universities in the UK A study of figures provided by the Higher Education Statistics Agency shows that at the last count a year ago there were 340,000 students on programmes outside of the European Union who were studying for a UK degree or another higher education qualification. In comparison, in the same year there were just 309,000 non-EU domiciled students on higher education courses in the UK. The figures underline the remarkable growth and increasing significance of TNE
TNE in context There has been unprecedented growth in transnational education instigated by the drive of overseas governments to develop knowledge economies over the last ten years. The consequence of this is a rapidly changing and far more competitive environment for international education. As part of this, new models are emerging. There has been a significant expansion of overseas campuses as leading international universities are enticed by favourable conditions, for example the Nottingham Malaysia and Ningbo campuses.
UK TNE overview Massive growth in TNE programmes Increased role in contributing to host countries national priorities Trend towards more partnership-led model More research-led universities engaging in TNE Developments in host countries are having an impact TNE increasingly being seen as a significant priority institutionally, and part of internationalisation strategies
2011/12 Headlines the number of students studying their entire UK qualification outside of the UK was 571,000 in , this is a 13% increase from 10/11, and a third more than in , universities enrolling most students in Malaysia, Singapore and Pakistan. 7
UK qualifications are now delivered in 223 countries outside of the UK There are now 78 countries where at least as many students study a UK HE qualification in that country compared to the number of students travelling to the UK for their education There are 12 countries where the difference between students studying a UK qualification in country and those studying in the UK is greater than 5,000: there are now more students on UK university courses abroad than there are international and EU students coming to the UK to study. 8
Study in UK vs TNE
The models Kevin Van-Cauter, Higher Education Adviser, the British Council
Many different approaches…. Delivered to the same academic standard Branch campus University of Nottingham Flying teacher programmes Manchester and Warwick MBAs E-learning/ fully on-line University of Liverpool MBA, RCN/City/Leicester/Ulster health Independent and locally supported distance learning Heriot-Watt and Leicester MBAs Twinning and franchising agreements Sheffield Hallam University
The models Where students contracts are with partners Validation A partner designs its own programme, adhering to the course planning and validation requirements of the UK HEI, but the award for the programme is from the UK HEI. Articulation The UK HEI recognises a programme of study in a partner institution as being equivalent to a stage of one of its own programmes. Students then join the UK HEIs programme at an identified point. Where students complete an award in another country (e.g. a diploma) enabling them to join a programme in the UK (e.g. year 2 of an undergraduate degree) this falls within the definition of TNE,
Models continued Franchise A UK HEIs programme is run by a partner overseas in the same way that it would be delivered in the UK. Rigorous partner approval is seen as particularly important. The UK HEIs quality assurance processes are followed by the partner and may be identical to those for programmes in the UK or more rigorous Joint award The award is given jointly by two (or more) HEIs. The model is usually implemented by peer institutions where it is seen as inappropriate for either to take the lead. Each institution contributes a proportion of the programme delivery and arrangements are jointly agreed between institutions Dual award (may be known as double) An award is given by the UK HEI and also by one or more partners
Where students contracts are with the UK HEI In-country/flying faculty Members of staff from the UK HEI deliver class sessions overseas, which may or may not be in a partner institution. Classes are usually in intensive blocks and learning and teaching methods include inputs and workshop or group activities. Distance learning Students study a UK programme remotely, either by paper or by online resources and access to virtual learning environments (VLEs), Blended delivery This is increasingly common. It usually involves a mix of flying faculty from the UK HEI, tutorial support from a local partner and the use of e-learning, usually via the UK HEIs VLE..
On-campus provision overseas A UK HEI has a campus overseas that mirrors as far as possible its provision in the UK (i.e. the LTA features are those for its UK based courses) and that provides programmes for local students or those from surrounding region. Where an overseas institution is a partner collaborative models may apply (e.g. joint award).
Models of TNE
Changing Global context Kevin Van-Cauter, Higher Education Adviser, the British Council
Changing global context Global education market is expected to grow significantly in the long-term Fundamental and far reaching changes in the underlying dynamics of the global education market mean that the operating context is very different and there are no guarantees that the UK will maintain its strong position Early indicators suggest a market break-point: established trends are changing dramatically Overall global growth in student mobility, but a slow down in the growth rates for some major countries
Summary of context continued Increasing competition among major host countries, growing importance of the Australian market, Europe and other markets such as Japan, China, Singapore and Malaysia and the Gulf States Increasingly students study for less than 1 year in the UK: hence bigger recruitment efforts on behalf of UK institutions Growing importance of wider international agenda: long-term collaborations/partnerships and alliances between UK institutions and overseas institutions; Significant increase in overseas delivery Growth of the private sector (for overseas and UK delivery) Malaysia, China and Singapore, the Gulf as regional education hubs: China has attracted over 140,000 international students
The growth of UK TNE
It all started in 1858…… University of London external programme operation since s introduction of full fees for international students brought about a more business-like culture, HEIs have developed a stronger, more entrepreneurial approach 80s/90s Many risks taken, and some fingers burnt 1990s Response to East Asia financial crisis, QAA guidelines issued Late 90s unprecedented growth, rapidly changing and more dynamic environment for TNE Present – steady growth, increased student choice, new hosts emerging, importance of third country students
What does the future hold?
Changing patterns of delivery In 2008 DIUS survey indicated that nearly half of all provision falls into franchise/validation categories Trend towards more partnership-led models More research-led universities engaging in TNE Developments in host countries are having an impact TNE increasingly being seen as a significant priority institutionally, and part of internationalisation strategies
Paradigm Change 20 th century recruitment model 21 st century collaborative model
The drivers Benefits of TNE to the providing institution identified include: reaching new student markets generating revenue diversifying education programme delivery and developing a brand/reputation for the quality of education provision
Implications for UK Higher Education Kevin Van-Cauter, Higher Education Adviser, the British Council
Some Implications Transnational education provides greater flexibility and choice for students across the world who may not be able to afford to spend several years thousands miles away from home. It clearly presents many opportunities for UK institutions, but it also brings competitive challenges as we are not the only players in the TNE market. Perhaps foremost among these challenges is that of maintaining the quality of courses and protecting the UKs reputation for high quality education which is a key selling point for us.
UK Context Significant falls in international recruitment Focus on TNE from UK Government – to be included in Education Industrial Strategy No real consensus on which models of TNE bring most value to UK Significant and growing demand TNE seen as mitigating risks of falling incoming numbers
Trends Difficulties with student visas may be short term but damage to reputation of UK will take much longer to repair Growth in TNE likely to continue for foreseeable future Target emerging middle class – new markets. TNE as first choice/ highest quality TNE as a recruitment tool Importance of local partners in delivering student experience
Does TNE represent a new model of learning? Majority of TNE is delivered face to face Flexible delivery tends to be focused on mature, professional, non traditional student Students are looking for a UK experience Distance and on-line learning still not recognised in many countries Limited interaction between TNE and home students