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Assessment and Learning in Practice Settings (ALPS) © http://www.alps-cetl.ac.uk The current accessibility issues that affect mobile learning in the United Kingdom (UK) educational sector. Stuart Walker – University of Bradford
Assessment and Learning in Practice Settings (ALPS) © http://www.alps-cetl.ac.uk The Disability Discrimination Act (DDA)1995 The Act became law in November 1995 and was introduced in 4 key stages: Definitions and Exemptions Employment Goods, Facilities and Services Education – SENDA 2001 Augmented – 2002,2003,2004,2005
Assessment and Learning in Practice Settings (ALPS) © http://www.alps-cetl.ac.uk Who is covered by the Act? Anyone who has: a physical or mental impairment which has a substantial and long-term adverse effect on their ability to carry out normal day-to-day activities
Assessment and Learning in Practice Settings (ALPS) © http://www.alps-cetl.ac.uk Discrimination – How? Under the act it is unlawful to discriminate. 2 ways of discriminating: To treat a disabled person less favourably To fail to make reasonable adjustments
Assessment and Learning in Practice Settings (ALPS) © http://www.alps-cetl.ac.uk SENDA Problems with the Act / SENDA: Lags behind other legislation: sex and race Evidence that disabled people continue to be disadvantaged DDA 1995 concerned with reactive duties to avoid discrimination
Assessment and Learning in Practice Settings (ALPS) © http://www.alps-cetl.ac.uk Disability Discrimination Act 2005 Extends and amends the DDA 1995 Includes a Disability Equality Duty (DED) on the public sector Came in to force in December 2006
Assessment and Learning in Practice Settings (ALPS) © http://www.alps-cetl.ac.uk Disability Equality Duty General duty on public authorities (which includes publicly funded bodies like HE) Specific Disability Equality Duty Develop a Disability Equality Scheme To be reviewed annually and revised every 3 years
Assessment and Learning in Practice Settings (ALPS) © http://www.alps-cetl.ac.uk Models of Disability MEDICAL MODEL The individual is the problem The individual needs to be made normal SOCIAL MODEL Impairments do exist but: People are Disabled by society
Assessment and Learning in Practice Settings (ALPS) © http://www.alps-cetl.ac.uk Needs of disabled people already catered for? Accessibility for disabled people is often overlooked. VLEs Dunn (2003) Papadopoulos and Pearson (2007) Return to SENDA?
Assessment and Learning in Practice Settings (ALPS) © http://www.alps-cetl.ac.uk Experience of VLEs demonstrates the need for accessible learning environments in order to ensure equality, good practice and reduce the risk of possible litigation. It is therefore vital that we examine accessibility when implementing mobile devices as learning tools. Return to SENDA? Part II
Assessment and Learning in Practice Settings (ALPS) © http://www.alps-cetl.ac.uk What do we mean by mobile learning?
Assessment and Learning in Practice Settings (ALPS) © http://www.alps-cetl.ac.uk Arent laptops better? Benefits Ability to transport around. Can be used in a variety of settings Problems Weight / Size Time to boot up Ive been on and off crutches nearly the whole of the summer and trying to carry a backpack with a laptop in... its crippling me its got to the point where I just dont bring the laptop in Im just shoving everything on data sticks
Assessment and Learning in Practice Settings (ALPS) © http://www.alps-cetl.ac.uk PDAs Benefits Light / portable Always on (reminders) Quick boot up Problems Screen size Hardware / accessibility issues
Assessment and Learning in Practice Settings (ALPS) © http://www.alps-cetl.ac.uk The JISC guide to Effective Practice with e-Learning - 6 benefits Connectivity –information is available on a global scale. Flexibility – learning can take place any time, any place. Interactivity – assessment of can be immediate and autonomous. Collaboration –tools can support collaborative learning beyond the classroom. Extended opportunities – e-content can reinforce and extend classroom-based learning. Motivation – multimedia resources can make learning fun. But how can these aid disabled users?
Assessment and Learning in Practice Settings (ALPS) © http://www.alps-cetl.ac.uk W3C? Useful Web Accessibility Guidelines Guidelines for Mobile Access Problems Rapid of technological change Not pedagogical guidelines Does not take into account convergence of technologies.
Assessment and Learning in Practice Settings (ALPS) © http://www.alps-cetl.ac.uk Accessibility Passport (Techdis UK, 2006) Four main elements Evaluation Commissioning Design. Delivery.
Assessment and Learning in Practice Settings (ALPS) © http://www.alps-cetl.ac.uk What is Accessibility anyway? A model of accessible m-learning Techdis UK, 2008 (http://www.techdis.ac.uk/index.php?p=9_5_32_3)
Assessment and Learning in Practice Settings (ALPS) © http://www.alps-cetl.ac.uk Conclusion: Useful tools / advice W3C Techdis Essential Understand the legislation and its demands Ensure accessibility is built in at the design stage. Make Disabled people a central part of consultation
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