7 Drivers for technology enhanced learning (TEL) To improve flexibility and quality of learning and teaching in response to: – Move towards lifelong learning and widening participation. – Increasing diversity in student population and modes of attendance (part-time, at a distance, open/flexible, and work based).
8 8 The gap between the potential and the reality of support via TEL Five reasons for slow technology innovation: 1)Digital technologies are too new and challenging 2)Education is a complex system of powerful, stable drivers, which do not embrace technology 3)Education leaders are not comfortable with technology as a component of strategy 4)Education is political, public service – low investment in innovation 5)Teaching practitioners have neither the power nor the means to innovate (Laurillard, 2008)
e-literacy in pedagogical terms Required set of competencies for teaching practitioners is more complex and consists of: Updated knowledge of TEL resources and their role in enriching the learner experience. Expertise of range of tools and of the pedagogical affordances that each provides Ability to evaluate technologies and engage in reflection on how they impact on learning
VLEs VLEs as approximations of a space that is problematic : the non-interactive lecture theatre Focus on content rather than interaction Difficulties in monitoring student learning An insular environment Non customizable/adaptable What is a VLE 2.0?
From provision to connecting The Personal Learning Environment Currently we provide learners and teachers with technology - we give them a space, email accounts etc. The PLE approach would be instead to enable connecting people with each other and resources of mutual relevance Wilson
Personal Learning Environments Easy to use Personally configurable Gadgets, widgets Push and pull data Multiple machines, portable Reflective spaces, Creating net presence and social capital
Social Media in Higher Education Blogs (reflective aspect) Wikis (collaborative construction of knowledge) Social bookmarking (sharing personal references with some form of commentary) Social networking (discussion, communication, formal and informal spaces) Immersive environments (virtual worlds, MUVEs)
16 Designing Meaningful Materials Good design begins with the study of student prior knowledge Good teaching involves teachers and students in the sharing of newly emerging knowledge structures Good teaching also involves students in the rehearsal of activities they will need to complete for assessment
Choosing the right tool(s)? http://www.go2web20.nethttp://www.go2web20.net over 3000 apps 17
An e-portfolio system, pebblePAD. What does it feel/look like?
FA and technologies Learning technologies promote innovative assessment practices and lead to deeper thinking about how tutors conceptualise assessment in higher education (McCormick 2004). Assessment practices have been supported by technology for many years. However… ….main focus on developing tools such as objective tests rather than addressing fundamental issues, such as how they can be used to support effective assessment approaches (Nicol and Milligan, 2006).
Characteristics of FA technologies Can be used as living record of student learning Blur boundaries between formal and informal learning spaces Challenge dominant model of hierarchical, tutor centred education Embrace an ideology of openness, dialogue and ownership.
e-assessment: range of technologies Non-formative – Objective tests (they disagree with certain disciplines) – Model answers received or revealed after students submit an answer, as non-personalised feedback – Electronic submission of coursework Formative – Communication tools in VLEs – Online tutorials – Games that allow monitoring and intervention – Audio to canvas opinions/understanding of concepts/issues. Audio more meaningful conceptually than video – Tools such as certainty based marking – Videoconferencing – Social software: Blogs, wikis – e-portfolios
Immersive environments Completely removed from face-to-face learning experiences as participants have to negotiate: a sense of dislocation from familiar physical spaces; a set of competencies that could be broadly described as enhanced digital literacies; operating under an assumed identity that may or may not facilitate communication. induction and familiarisation with the environments does not necessarily mean that learners can benefit from their affordances. The related pedagogy is challenging for the educators as tasks have to be designed specifically for the attributes of such environments. Warburton, Hatzipanagos & Perez-Garcia, 2009
Muvenation: a SecondLife MUVE Necessary technologies A space to talk. A space to complete activities. A space to put resources, and find resources A personal space to manage your identity Single authentication Work in progress and finished product 23
What about Kings? Social Networking sites: on the periphery of learning but a new space (OneSpace) to aggregate student learning inc. web 2.0 communication tools Blogs and wikis Blogs more popular, collaborative construction aspect of wikis still underdeveloped, used as communication tools Portfolios: aggregation of above functions,, student-centred features in conflict with conflict with tutor control and monitoring of the environment. SecondLife and Wonderland project-based, not mainstream but hopeful signs it will attract interest from a diverse student body Social tagging: chaotic, academic and personal tools VLE 2.0: a slow integration process, e.g. powelinks to web 2.0 tools that ease access.
26 Lectures, books, PPT, digital videos, animations, podcasts Library, catalogue, journals, online resources, digital library, websites, search engines… Tutorial, seminar, small group discussion, online conferencing, forum, chat room, wiki… Problem sheet, practice exercises, project work, interactive simulation, spreadsheet, data analysis tool, virtual game… Essay, program, solution, design, product, performance, PPT, program, model, website, design, digital video… -Attention -Inquiry -Discussion -Practice -Production (Laurillard 2008) Match technologies to learning needs
Promising Signs Ubiquity and multi- functionality of web 2.0 Growth of openness and online resources, OERs Increasingly effective pedagogical models and learning activities Real educational alternatives – including private sector Anderson 2009
Values The economically successful nations will be those which become learning societies : where all are committed, through effective education and training to lifelong learning. Dearing report, UK, 1997 Student control and freedom is integral to 21 st Century life-long education and learning. Education for elites is not sufficient for planetary survival. Anderson 2009
Into the future…. Web 3.0 applications, driven by semantic web technologies, offer powerful data organization, combination, and query capabilities. 1.Social media applications: tagging and basic metadata, scalability and authorship. 2.Semantic web applications: sophisticated logic-backed data handling technologies, data flexibility and portability Combine the strengths of these two approaches.
Some questions to explore 1.How do we accredit learning that takes place in informal spaces afforded by learning technologies 2.Are assessment practices in HE stifling innovation? 3.How semantic technologies, especially knowledge representation and collective intelligence, can benefit social web content organization and retrieval