Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

An Enquiry-Based Approach

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "An Enquiry-Based Approach"— Presentation transcript:

1 An Enquiry-Based Approach
Learning Journals and Reflective Thinking: An Enquiry-Based Approach Aberdeen University 7th July 2006

2 Buckingham Building Lion Terrace,
Dr George Allan BSc MA(Ed) PhD FBCS FNZCS CEng CITP MIMIS MILT MIEEE University of Portsmouth School of Computing Buckingham Building Lion Terrace, Portsmouth PO1 3HE +44(0)

3 Workshop Overview learning journals – their purpose
thinking ―› reflection cognitive development models enquiry-based paradigm reflection ―› critical reflection ―› reflexion strategies for engaging students

4 Learning Journal A learning journal - collection of reflective writings Reflective writing – manifestation of reflective thinking What is reflective thinking?

5 Learning Journal Find and record information + Thinking Writing =
Better thinking

6 Thinking

7 Thinking 1 Recall descriptive What purpose does this serve?
How deeply does this engage the brain?

8 Thinking 2 Descriptive Recall + some cognitive skills = Reflection
Analysis Explanation Interpretation Description + these cognitive skills = Reflection

9 Reflection – a collection of intellectual activities to reach deeper understanding (Boud, Keogh and Walker, 1985) - the process of discovering the limits of one’s own expertise (Schön, 1983) - mentally questioning what we understand (Broad, 1924)

10 Example What is best practice in management ?
The ‘core’ of best practice in management is making good decisions. Good decisions rely on good use of resources. Making good use of resources requires good communications. Good communications ……..

11 Reflection The Kolb cycle The Cowan diagram Modified Cowan diagram
experience reflect generalize test The Cowan diagram Reflection for action Reflection in action Reflection on action Modified Cowan diagram

12 The Student Experience
Wisdom: Improved judgement Knowledge: Improved reasoning Learning: Improved ability Training: Task completion

13 Perry’s Model of Student Cognitive Development
Dualistic thinking Multiplistic thinking Relativistic thinking Commitment

14 Dualistic thinking All knowledge is known by the teacher
Every piece of knowledge is either R or W Your answer is either RIGHT or WRONG Ask the teacher.

15 Multiplistic thinking
Diversity of people’s opinions seen as their confusion – not yet arrived at the correct answer. Accept diversity as legitimate – teacher has not found the correct answer yet. Uncertainty is legitimate – my opinion is equal to teachers.

16 Relativistic thinking
Knowledge is seen as contextual The value of knowledge Different people’s knowledge – relative to person’s reliability/reputation/worth

17 Lecture Session Structure
10 mins Agree next topic to study 10/20 mins Small group discussions on individual work Whole-class participation Holistic learning Short bursts of information Short bursts of activity Student engagement Student Work Student Work An Enquiry-Based Paradigm

18 The Reflective Judgement Model
King and Kitchener (1990) based on Dewey (1933) and Perry (1970) Stage 1 – Single Category Belief System Knowledge is absolute and concrete Stage 2 – Truth not known to everyone Some people are right and some are wrong Stage 3 – Truth is incomplete (yet) All problems have solutions – some have not yet been found Stage 4 – Uncertainty in knowing is acknowledged Attributed to limitations of the knower Stage 5 – Knowledge is placed in context Interpretation of evidence Stage 6 – Knowing involves evaluation Some people’s views are evaluated as better than others Stage 7 – Knowledge is constructed via critical enquiry Synthesis of existing evidence; judgement on worth of evidence

19 Thinking 2 Descriptive Recall + some cognitive skills = Reflection
Analysis Explanation Interpretation Description + these cognitive skills = Reflection

20 Thinking 3 Reflection + Reflection + questioning the basis of our analysis = Critical Reflection

21 Critical Reflection Analysis Explanation Interpretation Inference
A deeper conceptual thinking process Analysis Explanation Interpretation Inference Conceptual level

22 Critical Thinking Critical Thinking: What It Is and Why It Counts (Facione, 1998) Cognitive skills of: Interpretation Analysis Evaluation Inference Explanation Self-regulation

23 Thinking 4 Reflect on our critical reflection Think about the thinking
Reflexive – indication that action turns back upon the subject Reflect on our critical reflection = Reflexion

24 Thinking 4 Critical Reflection +
challenge the validity of presuppositions in own prior learning (Mezirow, 1990) Critical Reflection + question the assumptions in own mind = Critical Reflexion

25 Learning Journal Find and record information + Thinking Writing =
Critical reflexion

26 Learning Journal Learning journal - collection of reflective writings
Reflective writing – manifestation of reflective thinking Reflexive thinking

27 The Relationship between Thinking and Writing

28 References Dewey, J., (1910;1933), How We Think, London, Heath & Company Cowan, J., (1998), On Becoming an Innovative University Teacher, Buckingham, OUP and SRHE Kitchener, K.S. and King, P.M., (1990), “The Reflective Judgement Model: Transforming Assumptions About Knowing”, in: (J. Mezirow, Ed.), Fostering Critical Reflection in Adulthood, San Francisco, Jossey-Bass Lukinsky, J., (1990), “Reflective Withdrawal Through Journal Writing”, in: (J. Mezirow, Ed.), Fostering Critical Reflection in Adulthood, San Francisco, Jossey-Bass Moon, J., (1999a), Learning Journals: A Handbook for Academics, Students and Professional Development, London, Kogan Press Moon, J., (1999b), Reflection in Learning and Professional Development, Kogan Press, London Moon, J., (2000), Critical Thinking for Students, 3rd Ed., Oxford, How to Books Ltd. Perry, W.G., (1970), Forms of Intellectual and Ethical Development in College Years, New York, Holt, Rhinehart & Winston Perry, W.G., (1999), Forms of Ethical and Intellectual Development in College Years, San Francisco, Jossey-Bass Rogers, C.R., (1969: 1983), Freedom to Learn for the 80’s, Edinburgh, OU in Scotland

29 Strategies for Engaging Students with Their Own Learning
Learning by ‘doing’ made them think Doing what? Technical enquiry Record the ‘doing’=Learning Journal

30 Strategies for Engaging Students
Writing made them think Critical thinking made them think

31 Examples Find something for students to think about and practice the cognitive processes in critical thinking. Extend this with small-group dialectic.

32 Dialectic The art of discussion which seeks to resolve conflict between two or more opposing theories rather than disprove any one of them That branch of logic which teaches the rules and modes of reasoning

33 Patience Allow students to make mistakes
Let them discover the hard way Then take corrective action through Explanation Example

34 Strategies for Engaging Students More Examples
What is thinking? What is Reason? Write to describe “a coin” from your pocket What is “QUALITY in thought & statement” Do we want quality in problem solving?

35 Strategies for Engaging Students
Spatial Awareness Draw diagrams Concept maps Brain maps

36 Facilitation of Learning
Get students to talk about their findings and raw ideas Promote discussion and extension Encourage discourse Foster dialectic - higher level intellectual process

37 Strategies for Engaging Students More Examples
Write about what you have been doing since the last entry Did anything prevent you form any particular work? What will be your next piece of work?

38 Learning Journal Find and record information + Thinking Writing =
Critical reflexion

39 Feedback from students
Learning by ‘doing’ made them think Record the ‘doing’=Learning Journal Writing made them think Critical thinking made them think Doing what? Technical enquiry

40 Learning Journals and Reflexive Thinking
Linking Learning Journals and Reflexive Thinking George Allan School of Computing Ext. 6415 Burnaby Terrace, Portsmouth PO1 3AE +44(0)


Download ppt "An Enquiry-Based Approach"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google