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Learning Journals and Reflective Thinking: An Enquiry-Based Approach Aberdeen University 7 th July 2006.

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Presentation on theme: "Learning Journals and Reflective Thinking: An Enquiry-Based Approach Aberdeen University 7 th July 2006."— Presentation transcript:

1 Learning Journals and Reflective Thinking: An Enquiry-Based Approach Aberdeen University 7 th July 2006

2 Dr George Allan BSc MA(Ed) PhD FBCS FNZCS CEng CITP MIMIS MILT MIEEE University of Portsmouth School of Computing Buckingham Building Lion Terrace, Portsmouth PO1 3HE +44(0)2392 846415 George.Allan@port.ac.uk http://www.tech.port.ac.uk/staffweb/allang/

3 Workshop Overview learning journals – their purpose learning journals – their purpose thinking reflection thinking reflection cognitive development models cognitive development models enquiry-based paradigm enquiry-based paradigm reflection critical reflection reflexion reflection critical reflection reflexion strategies for engaging students strategies for engaging students

4 Learning Journal Learning Journal A learning journal - collection of reflective writings A learning journal - collection of reflective writings Reflective writing – manifestation of reflective thinking Reflective writing – manifestation of reflective thinking What is reflective thinking? What is reflective thinking?

5 Learning Journal Find and record information +Thinking +Writing = Better thinking Better thinking

6 Thinking

7 Thinking 1 Recall – descriptive What purpose does this serve? How deeply does this engage the brain?

8 Thinking 2 Descriptive Recall + some cognitive skills = Reflection Analysis Explanation Interpretation Description + these cognitive skills = Reflection

9 Reflection – a collection of intellectual activities to reach deeper understanding (Boud, Keogh and Walker, 1985) - the process of discovering the limits of ones own expertise (Schön, 1983) - mentally questioning what we understand (Broad, 1924)

10 Example What is best practice in management ? The core of best practice in management is making good decisions. Good decisions rely on good use of resources. Making good use of resources requires good communications. Good communications ……..

11 Reflection The Kolb cycle experience reflect generalize test The Cowan diagram –Reflection for action –Reflection in action –Reflection on action Modified Cowan diagram

12 The Student Experience Training: Task completion Learning: Improved ability Knowledge: Improved reasoning Wisdom: Improved judgement

13 Perrys Model of Student Cognitive Development Dualistic thinking Multiplistic thinking Relativistic thinking Commitment

14 Dualistic thinking All knowledge is known by the teacher Every piece of knowledge is either R or W Your answer is either RIGHT or WRONG Ask the teacher.

15 Multiplistic thinking Diversity of peoples opinions seen as their confusion – not yet arrived at the correct answer. Accept diversity as legitimate – teacher has not found the correct answer yet. Uncertainty is legitimate – my opinion is equal to teachers.

16 Relativistic thinking Knowledge is seen as contextual The value of knowledge Different peoples knowledge – relative to persons reliability/reputation/worth

17 Student Work Student Work 10/20 mins Small group discussions on individual work 10 mins Agree next topic to study Whole-class participation Holistic learning Short bursts of information Short bursts of activity Student engagement Lecture Session Structure An Enquiry-Based Paradigm

18 The Reflective Judgement Model King and Kitchener (1990) based on Dewey (1933) and Perry (1970) Stage 1 – Single Category Belief System Knowledge is absolute and concrete Stage 2 – Truth not known to everyone Some people are right and some are wrong Stage 3 – Truth is incomplete (yet) All problems have solutions – some have not yet been found Stage 4 – Uncertainty in knowing is acknowledged Attributed to limitations of the knower Stage 5 – Knowledge is placed in context Interpretation of evidence Stage 6 – Knowing involves evaluation Some peoples views are evaluated as better than others Stage 7 – Knowledge is constructed via critical enquiry Synthesis of existing evidence; judgement on worth of evidence

19 Thinking 2 Descriptive Recall + some cognitive skills = Reflection Analysis Explanation Interpretation Description + these cognitive skills = Reflection

20 Thinking 3 Reflection + Reflection + questioning the basis of our analysis = Critical Reflection

21 Critical Reflection A deeper conceptual thinking process Analysis Explanation Interpretation Inference Conceptual level

22 Critical Thinking Critical Thinking: What It Is and Why It Counts (Facione, 1998) Cognitive skills of: –Interpretation –Analysis –Evaluation –Inference –Explanation –Self-regulation

23 Thinking 4 Think about the thinking Reflexive – indication that action turns back upon the subject Reflect on our critical reflection = Reflexion

24 Thinking 4 Critical Reflection + challenge the validity of presuppositions in own prior learning (Mezirow, 1990) Critical Reflection + question the assumptions in own mind = Critical Reflexion

25 Learning Journal Find and record information + Thinking + Writing = Critical reflexion

26 Learning Journal Learning journal - collection of reflective writings Reflective writing – manifestation of reflective thinking Reflexive thinking

27 The Relationship between Thinking and Writing

28 References Dewey, J., (1910;1933), How We Think, London, Heath & Company Cowan, J., (1998), On Becoming an Innovative University Teacher, Buckingham, OUP and SRHE Kitchener, K.S. and King, P.M., (1990), The Reflective Judgement Model: Transforming Assumptions About Knowing, in: (J. Mezirow, Ed.), Fostering Critical Reflection in Adulthood, San Francisco, Jossey-Bass Lukinsky, J., (1990), Reflective Withdrawal Through Journal Writing, in: (J. Mezirow, Ed.), Fostering Critical Reflection in Adulthood, San Francisco, Jossey-Bass Moon, J., (1999a), Learning Journals: A Handbook for Academics, Students and Professional Development, London, Kogan Press Moon, J., (1999b), Reflection in Learning and Professional Development, Kogan Press, London Moon, J., (2000), Critical Thinking for Students, 3 rd Ed., Oxford, How to Books Ltd. Perry, W.G., (1970), Forms of Intellectual and Ethical Development in College Years, New York, Holt, Rhinehart & Winston Perry, W.G., (1999), Forms of Ethical and Intellectual Development in College Years, San Francisco, Jossey-Bass Rogers, C.R., (1969: 1983), Freedom to Learn for the 80s, Edinburgh, OU in Scotland

29 Strategies for Engaging Students with Their Own Learning Learning by doing made them think Doing what? Technical enquiry Record the doing=Learning Journal

30 Strategies for Engaging Students Writing made them think Critical thinking made them think

31 Examples Find something for students to think about and practice the cognitive processes in critical thinking. Extend this with small-group dialectic.

32 Dialectic The art of discussion which seeks to resolve conflict between two or more opposing theories rather than disprove any one of them That branch of logic which teaches the rules and modes of reasoning

33 Patience Allow students to make mistakes Let them discover the hard way Then take corrective action through Explanation Example

34 Strategies for Engaging Students More Examples What is thinking? What is Reason? Write to describe a coin from your pocket What is QUALITY in thought & statement Do we want quality in problem solving?

35 Strategies for Engaging Students Spatial Awareness Draw diagrams Concept maps Brain maps

36 Facilitation of Learning Get students to talk about their findings and raw ideas Promote discussion and extension Encourage discourse Foster dialectic - higher level intellectual process

37 Strategies for Engaging Students More Examples Write about what you have been doing since the last entry Did anything prevent you form any particular work? What will be your next piece of work?

38 Learning Journal Find and record information + Thinking + Writing = Critical reflexion

39 Feedback from students Learning by doing made them think Learning by doing made them think Record the doing=Learning Journal Record the doing=Learning Journal Writing made them think Writing made them think Critical thinking made them think Critical thinking made them think Doing what? Doing what? Technical enquiry Technical enquiry

40 Linking Learning Journals and Reflexive Thinking George Allan School of Computing Ext. 6415 Burnaby Terrace, Portsmouth PO1 3AE +44(0)2392 846415 George.Allan@port.ac.uk http://www.tech.port.ac.uk/staffweb/allang/


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