Presentation on theme: "Changing Trends in the Flow of International Human Capital:"— Presentation transcript:
1 Changing Trends in the Flow of International Human Capital: From the Perspective of Foreign-trained Chinese PhD Elites in the USA, the UK and AustraliaTinghua Zhou, PhD candidate, Monash UniversityVisiting student, Oxford University16 June @ UK Higher Education Academy Teaching International Student Conference
2 This presentation covers… IntroductionLiterature ReviewResearch QuestionResearch MethodData Collection and Analysis
4 PhD in foreign country - PR- Citizenship (“Instrumental Citizenship”)
5 Literature ReviewNow, China is the largest sending country of students for overseas studies with 1.39 million students, which consists of 14% of all overseas students around the world (UNESCO, 2007).However, return rate of foreign-trained Chinese is very low
6 Table1. Return rate of foreign-trained Chinese from 2000-2007 (ten thousand) (Source: Ministry of Education of the People’s Republic of China, 2010)YearStudy AbroadReturnedReturned rate2000Near 34Near 1338.2%200145.8013.5029.5%200258.3015.3026.2%200370.0217.2824.7%200481.4819.7824.3%200593.3423.2925.0%2006106.7027.5025.8%2007121.1731.9726.5%
7 Research QuestionHow do foreign-trained Chinese PhD elites make their decision to stay abroad or return back?What factors influence their decision?What is similarity and difference amongst foreign-trained PhD Chinese in America, Britain and Australia regarding return/stay question?
8 At the macro-level,Zweig (2006) argues that central government sets broad policy guidelines, allocates funding, and moulds an attractive socio-economic and political environment.Mobilizing “official resources” overseas: set up educational bureaus in embassies and consulates; service centers in most major Chinese cities send out official recruiters to encourage overseas graduates to return.Financial policies: “Hundred Scholars Project” and “Spring Light Program” etc.Improving the flow of information: established research organizations to direct policy and official overseas study magazine “Shenzhou xueren” magazine and web sites to bridge between overseas scholars and domestic organizations
9 (4) Ease the process of returning: China government has established Overseas Study Service Centers to help returnees find jobs and postdoctoral stations for overseas PhDs who could not find jobs in China. Meanwhile, residency and entry visas requirements for overseas scholars who have taken foreign citizenship have been simplified. For example, Shanghai issues permanent residence status for this category of overseas scholars, which has become national policy. However, it must be noticed that these returnees are ineligible for most preferential policies unless they renounce their foreign citizenship.(5) Short-term visits to "serve the country": China government encourages people to return for short periods to engage in cooperative projects or give lectures etc.
11 At the meso level,Zweig (2006) argues that competition among cities, universities, research laboratories and enterprises has increased incentives to attract foreign-trained talents back.At the micro level…
12 Push and PullPan (2010) suggests that the strongest pull factors is the ability of the host countries to offer better teaching and research facilities, higher salaries, greater political and academic freedom, and better living facilities and environment.In contrast, the strongest Chinese push factors include low salaries, poor teaching and research facilities, lack of acknowledgment, little opportunity of advancement, and an uncertain political climate.Moreover, he points out that pull factors also sources from China with its rapid economic growth while push factors exist in host countries given the recession context.Optimistically, Hart (2006) portrays brain circulation as a win-win situation where both host countries and sending countries benefit from the freer cross-border flow of human capital, information, knowledge and services.
13 On the other hand, Altbach (2004) and Rizvi (2005) argued that host countries possess advantages that attract talented academics from developing countries although developing countries might benefit freer cross-border flows in information and personnel.Moreover, Altbach (2004) explains that although push factors from developing countries can be moderated, pull factors from developed countries cannot be altered much.The pull factors from host countries, such as offering students better teaching and research resources, social and political toleration, exposure to a diverse life and global culture, better salaries and working conditions, and fairer and more transparent personnel recruitment and promotion processes, all these make academic talent from developing countries continue to migrate into host countries.
14 Identity Researcher Rawi Abdelal (2011) Uma A. Segal (2009) Nan M. Sussman (2011)TheoryIdentity as a VariableThe continuum of adjustment:Identity shift modelFour types of identity shifts based on “cultural identity centrality” and “cultural flexibility”:Social Identity:Constitutive normsSocial PurposesRelational ComparisonsCognitive ModelAcculturation and assimilationSegmented assimilationIntegrationAccommodationSeparationMarginalizationRejectionSubtractiveAdditiveAffirmativeIntercultural (Global)
15 Chinese International Student Elite(social identity) PhD student/ graduate(academic identity)Chinese International Student(national identity)Elite(social identity)
16 Definition of “elite”Elite refers to an exceptional and/or privileged group that wields considerable power within its sphere of influence. Depending on the context, this power might be physical, spiritual, intellectual and/or financial.
17 Research Method Document analysis: China’s study abroad policy and incentive policies to attract foreign-trained Chinese back fromimmigrant policies of host countries, that is, Australia, UK and USA.Focus group: current PhD Chinese students from Harvard, Oxford and MelbourneIn-depth interview:alumni who have returned to China(temporarily) stay in the host countries (USA, UK and Australia)career advisers relevant to Chinese PhD students
18 Education and Immigration Policy (USA, UK and Australia) Document AnalysisInterviewFocus GroupEducation and Immigration Policy from home and host countriesCareer ServicesAlumniCurrent StudentsCareer AdvisorsImmigrants or temporary stayReturnees2 Harvard2 Oxford2MelbourneStudy abroad Policy (China)MesoMacroMicro
19 Data Collection and Analysis Scenario Sample 1: (Citizenship and Identity) “I am still feeling I am Chinese, but I was forced to give up my citizenship”, said a Chinese American, who graduated from a top American university and has lived there for 6 years. The 1980 China Constitution stipulates that “anyone who joins another country will be viewed as automatically giving up their Chinese citizenship”, which is still on valid now. With the increasing number of Chinese students going abroad, not allowing dual citizenship has become an obstacle for their return. China’s neighbor countries have gradually allowed dual citizenship since 1990s. For example, Korean (2011), Vietnam (2009), India (2005), Philippine (2001), Mexico (1998), Hong Kong (1997) and Brazil (1995), where banned dual citizenship in the past. Even, India initiatives Person of Indian Origin (PIO) card, which allows the holders to enter without a visa for 15 years, and Overseas Citizens of India (OCI) card, which is visa-free for a lifetime targeting second and third generations of India blood American.
20 Question:Do you think not allowing dual citizenship is one of concerns when you consider to stay in host countries or to return home? If dual citizenship cannot be realized in China in the foreseeable future, what do you recommend China government do instead in order to attract talents like you?“Being an American/British/Australian citizen is one thing, feeling Chineseness is another thing”, what is the meaning of citizenship to you? (“instrumental citizenship” refers to citizenship is not based on value, belief, loyalty to a country, but based on benefits.)
21 Scenario Sample 2(incentive and welfare)Chinese official recruiters held a tea party at an office in Los Angeles. Bill, who completed his PhD at a top American university, was one of several students in attendance. He was utterly underwhelmed by the apparatchiks' offer. They seemed actually to believe that state-sector jobs, two-bedroom apartments and education for his kids could entice him to forsake the American dream. "They even promised Beijing or Shanghai residency for the students' children," he recalls. "They think we are a bunch of peasants trying to get into the big cities? My children were born in America; they're American citizens." Bill quickly came to the conclusion that the Beijing recruiters had come to the United States merely to scam a vacation. He went home disgusted.
22 Question:Do you think Chinese official recruiters’ offer acceptable? What factors influence your decision?(source: )
23 Thank you for your attention Tinghua ZhouPhD candidate, Monash UniversityVisiting student, Oxford University16 June @ UK Higher Education Academy Teaching International Student Conference