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Integrating across data sets at the point of analysis Jo Moran-Ellis, Victoria D. Alexander, Ann Cronin, Jane Fielding (University of Surrey) and Hilary.

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Presentation on theme: "Integrating across data sets at the point of analysis Jo Moran-Ellis, Victoria D. Alexander, Ann Cronin, Jane Fielding (University of Surrey) and Hilary."— Presentation transcript:

1 Integrating across data sets at the point of analysis Jo Moran-Ellis, Victoria D. Alexander, Ann Cronin, Jane Fielding (University of Surrey) and Hilary Thomas (University of Hertfordshire) Paper presented to Combining Social Research Methods, Data and Analysis Qualiti Workshop (Cardiff University) at the University of Surrey 22 nd February 2006

2 ©J. Moran-Ellis; V.D. Alexander; A. Cronin; J. Fielding; H. Thomas. Feb Overview Thinking about integration about integration points of integration points of integration analytic integration analytic integration example: following the thread implications implications

3 ©J. Moran-Ellis; V.D. Alexander; A. Cronin; J. Fielding; H. Thomas. Feb Thinking about integration Separating out… Combination Combination Integration Integration Triangulation Triangulation

4 ©J. Moran-Ellis; V.D. Alexander; A. Cronin; J. Fielding; H. Thomas. Feb Combining Integrating Combine methods (a continuum…) one subsumed to the other concerning the substantive question flesh on the bones (eg Green 2003) informing design (Gobo 2001) Integrate Integration Integration Contribution of equal value to the substantive question (Moran-Ellis et al 2006) Not necessarily triangulation Not necessarily triangulation ?

5 ©J. Moran-Ellis; V.D. Alexander; A. Cronin; J. Fielding; H. Thomas. Feb Triangulation: An epistemological claim about what one knows as the outcome of using mixed methods about what one knows as the outcome of using mixed methods Accurate measurement Accurate measurement Complementarity Complementarity Complexity/Knowing more Complexity/Knowing more Integration without triangulation Integration without triangulation Triangulation without integration? Translation? (eg Gray & Densten 1998) Triangulation without integration? Translation? (eg Gray & Densten 1998)

6 ©J. Moran-Ellis; V.D. Alexander; A. Cronin; J. Fielding; H. Thomas. Feb Integration: a process which brings different methods, data (sets), analyses, or interpretations into a relationship with each other where… which brings different methods, data (sets), analyses, or interpretations into a relationship with each other where… they are combined in such a way that they form a whole they are combined in such a way that they form a whole and they are interdependent but retain their paradigmatic nature (ie they are not translated one into the other) and they are interdependent but retain their paradigmatic nature (ie they are not translated one into the other) and they make a contribution of equal value and they make a contribution of equal value

7 ©J. Moran-Ellis; V.D. Alexander; A. Cronin; J. Fielding; H. Thomas. Feb Integration as process As a process integration then requires a means, i.e. a set of decisions & actions, by which a tangible relationship can be created between methods, data and/or perspectives

8 ©J. Moran-Ellis; V.D. Alexander; A. Cronin; J. Fielding; H. Thomas. Feb integration Metaphor integrated transport system in Amsterdam integrated transport system in Amsterdam

9 ©J. Moran-Ellis; V.D. Alexander; A. Cronin; J. Fielding; H. Thomas. Feb Potential integration point(s) in the research process? from the start (eg Coxon 2005) data generation/fieldwork (eg Deren et al 2003) data analysis interpretation presentation (eg Moran & Butler 2001)

10 ©J. Moran-Ellis; V.D. Alexander; A. Cronin; J. Fielding; H. Thomas. Feb In terms of integration also think about Opportunities offered for integration by the research design Design of multiple methods research requires consideration of many elements… (see also Greene, Caracelli & Graham, 1989).

11 ©J. Moran-Ellis; V.D. Alexander; A. Cronin; J. Fielding; H. Thomas. Feb Phenomena Methods Status Inter-dependence Sequencing Paradigms Different Unequal Different Sequential Independent Same Similar Same Interactive Simultaneous Equal

12 ©J. Moran-Ellis; V.D. Alexander; A. Cronin; J. Fielding; H. Thomas. Feb Potential integration point(s) in the research process? from the start data generation/fieldwork data analysis interpretationpresentation

13 ©J. Moran-Ellis; V.D. Alexander; A. Cronin; J. Fielding; H. Thomas. Feb integration deferred until analysis: data generated in two waves (parallel or sequential) for whatever reason (eg draws on two data sources; methodological reasons) specification (and timing of specification) of research question differs at the level of the different methods data generated differ in type eg text and visual research instruments differ in content multiple sub-sets of data where (possibly) different strong findings (might) emerge

14 ©J. Moran-Ellis; V.D. Alexander; A. Cronin; J. Fielding; H. Thomas. Feb After generating separate data - integrated analyses 1 Kelle (2001) Two separate sets of data: quantitative and qualitative Two separate sets of data: quantitative and qualitative Divergences and tensions in findings from each Divergences and tensions in findings from each Uses these analytically to develop richer explanatory accounts Uses these analytically to develop richer explanatory accounts Theoretical warrant: macro, micro and meso dimensions to the phenomenon Theoretical warrant: macro, micro and meso dimensions to the phenomenon

15 ©J. Moran-Ellis; V.D. Alexander; A. Cronin; J. Fielding; H. Thomas. Feb Bringing together separate data sets - integrated analyses 2 Following a thread – A potential framework to guide analytic integration alongside the research question

16 ©J. Moran-Ellis; V.D. Alexander; A. Cronin; J. Fielding; H. Thomas. Feb PPIMs - following a thread… Pick up on an emergent finding in one data set which has resonances in others Explore that thematic thread in the other data sets. Creates a data repertoire which can then be analysed further to generate an integrated account concerning that theme. Link back to the wider research question

17 ©J. Moran-Ellis; V.D. Alexander; A. Cronin; J. Fielding; H. Thomas. Feb the PPIMs study Research question: how is vulnerability experienced and managed in everyday life? Qualitative interview data sets Homeless participants Homeless participants People living on their own People living on their own Children & households Children & households Qualitative visual data – Photographs and interviews; video journeys Photographs and interviews; video journeys Quantitative data – secondary sources

18 ©J. Moran-Ellis; V.D. Alexander; A. Cronin; J. Fielding; H. Thomas. Feb Initially each data set is analysed in its own terms to give due to what it contributes epistemologically to understanding the phenomenon of everyday vulnerabilities and how they are strategically managed Where a promising thread is seen this is picked up and followed through into the other data sets via positioning the emergent thread as an analytic enquiry – is this in the other data sets, if it is what does it look like? What is promising ?

19 ©J. Moran-Ellis; V.D. Alexander; A. Cronin; J. Fielding; H. Thomas. Feb gather the threads together – juxtapose relevant data, codings and categorisations with each other Creates a data repertoire A collection of emergent findings concerning a particular theme from each of the different methods/methodologies used A collection of emergent findings concerning a particular theme from each of the different methods/methodologies used

20 ©J. Moran-Ellis; V.D. Alexander; A. Cronin; J. Fielding; H. Thomas. Feb Analysing the repertoire Synthesise the emergent findings to build up a bigger picture Could be multi-faceted, complex, or singular Could be multi-faceted, complex, or singular

21 ©J. Moran-Ellis; V.D. Alexander; A. Cronin; J. Fielding; H. Thomas. Feb Example: Picking up a thread…homes and houses analytically became interested in articulations of vulnerability, homes, and houses in the interview data generated with homeless participants…

22 ©J. Moran-Ellis; V.D. Alexander; A. Cronin; J. Fielding; H. Thomas. Feb I left home when I was 15 and a half and I just couldn t take the abuse there no more … I left there and other friends were like, can [Jane] stay over tonight? and made out that it was just staying over for a night as kids do … I left home when I was 15 and a half and I just couldn t take the abuse there no more … I left there and other friends were like, can [Jane] stay over tonight? and made out that it was just staying over for a night as kids do … Curfew time [in the hostel] is like 11 o'clock but if we re living here and it s like home we should be allowed to come in like whenever we want really. Curfew time [in the hostel] is like 11 o'clock but if we re living here and it s like home we should be allowed to come in like whenever we want really. Just a little home and a bit of help and support so that I can get used to being on my own and coping without the drink and drugs. Somewhere to live and somewhere secure … somewhere that is not a high-risk area where there are lots of users and [ … ]. That is all really, just a little place on my own eventually that I can call home. Just a little home and a bit of help and support so that I can get used to being on my own and coping without the drink and drugs. Somewhere to live and somewhere secure … somewhere that is not a high-risk area where there are lots of users and [ … ]. That is all really, just a little place on my own eventually that I can call home.

23 ©J. Moran-Ellis; V.D. Alexander; A. Cronin; J. Fielding; H. Thomas. Feb Key emergent findings Articulations of homes and houses with: Lived experiences of vulnerability Lived experiences of vulnerability abuse; drink/drugs; conflict; violence; location Personal strategies of management Personal strategies of management moving out; staying put Symbolism of home/houses Safe; place of your own; place where your stuff is Safe; place of your own; place where your stuff is

24 ©J. Moran-Ellis; V.D. Alexander; A. Cronin; J. Fielding; H. Thomas. Feb Homes and houses in the other interview data Neighbours Financial vulnerability A base related to dependence and independence dependence Charting the lifecourse; history and biography biography Community and connection Community and connection

25 ©J. Moran-Ellis; V.D. Alexander; A. Cronin; J. Fielding; H. Thomas. Feb Picking up the thread in the visual data How were homes and houses presented visually and positioned verbally? To what extent was this theme of home/house and vulnerability a feature of the visual data?

26 ©J. Moran-Ellis; V.D. Alexander; A. Cronin; J. Fielding; H. Thomas. Feb Resonance in the visual data: aesthetics

27 ©J. Moran-Ellis; V.D. Alexander; A. Cronin; J. Fielding; H. Thomas. Feb Resonance in the visual data: affect

28 ©J. Moran-Ellis; V.D. Alexander; A. Cronin; J. Fielding; H. Thomas. Feb Analytic integration… Producing a synthesised account

29 ©J. Moran-Ellis; V.D. Alexander; A. Cronin; J. Fielding; H. Thomas. Feb CONCEPTUAL ADVANTAGES Preserves epistemological insights Allows exploration of how concept changes Explore degrees of homogeneity/heterogeneity

30 ©J. Moran-Ellis; V.D. Alexander; A. Cronin; J. Fielding; H. Thomas. Feb PRAGMATIC ADVANTAGES Data management Refocus of research question(s)

31 ©J. Moran-Ellis; V.D. Alexander; A. Cronin; J. Fielding; H. Thomas. Feb Some points to consider… Decision to use multiple methods and to integrate them should be theory driven Integration can take place at a number of points in the research process Integration may not always be possible (or desirable) Paradigm issues may emerge around certain combinations of methods Tensions need to be identified and resolved for integration to be achieved Integration does not intrinsically imply what sort of claims can be made for the findings End

32 ©J. Moran-Ellis; V.D. Alexander; A. Cronin; J. Fielding; H. Thomas. Feb we have got quite a lot of friends there, and actually they come every day but they dont live there that is their granddad and grandmothers house and they quite a lot of the times visit there and we have got a broken fence so we go around each others gardens and play we have got quite a lot of friends there, and actually they come every day but they dont live there that is their granddad and grandmothers house and they quite a lot of the times visit there and we have got a broken fence so we go around each others gardens and play Sometimes I cycle to the park that is just at the back of our house. Sometimes I just go in the front garden and ride my bike but not very often. I do it in the garden too. as soon as I wake up I … go round [girlfriends] house. Stay round her house for a bit, chill out with her. Then, if shes got work I take her to work and then from then I drop her off and then depending on what time it is if its early in the morning I come back home or if its late like about three or four oclock and like my friends have finished college or whatever I just meet up with a couple of friends and go and sit around a mates house…. as soon as I wake up I … go round [girlfriends] house. Stay round her house for a bit, chill out with her. Then, if shes got work I take her to work and then from then I drop her off and then depending on what time it is if its early in the morning I come back home or if its late like about three or four oclock and like my friends have finished college or whatever I just meet up with a couple of friends and go and sit around a mates house…. return

33 ©J. Moran-Ellis; V.D. Alexander; A. Cronin; J. Fielding; H. Thomas. Feb … elsewhere it was all housing planning but here youve got a mix of a number if different types of people largely people with problems such as alcoholism or drug addiction…you almost have to learn to form your own support group around your own friends, theres almost an element of propping each other up, because theres so many different people with different problems if you mix at all here then most people you mix with are going to have some sort of problem and, for instance the guy next door is and alcoholic and has mental health problems in some shape or form, he did recently try to detox and we, my partner and I tried to help him through that… my husband left me last year and I was really very depressed and down and [John] the guy I told you about with the alcohol problem, he would come in, he was like a total priest, I dont know you wouldnt see him he'd dash down the shops and dash back again, head down but hed make a point of coming in and checking on me and if he couldnt cope with the situation hed ring someone up and say come and help her, equally weve tried to help him. return return

34 ©J. Moran-Ellis; V.D. Alexander; A. Cronin; J. Fielding; H. Thomas. Feb Ive lived here since I came back from the army, from India, after the war, my parents lived on [road in Hillside] and I lived with them until I decided to take the reckless step, or good step of getting married and they gave me the cottage and stable in [road in Hillside] in fact and we converted that to a house. The first year the baby arrived and we had to add a bedroom to that, then the second one arrived and we added another bedroom until the situation became ridiculous and we couldnt add any more and so my parents were getting more incapable of managing and it was a very large house, they had two live-in girls but they were both Italian, they were nice girls but all they wanted was to marry me off but at that stage I was married when they were here. Anyway thats really by the by but Ive lived here since Ive lived here since I came back from the army, from India, after the war, my parents lived on [road in Hillside] and I lived with them until I decided to take the reckless step, or good step of getting married and they gave me the cottage and stable in [road in Hillside] in fact and we converted that to a house. The first year the baby arrived and we had to add a bedroom to that, then the second one arrived and we added another bedroom until the situation became ridiculous and we couldnt add any more and so my parents were getting more incapable of managing and it was a very large house, they had two live-in girls but they were both Italian, they were nice girls but all they wanted was to marry me off but at that stage I was married when they were here. Anyway thats really by the by but Ive lived here since return

35 ©J. Moran-Ellis; V.D. Alexander; A. Cronin; J. Fielding; H. Thomas. Feb Well, sometimes you just need home [Greece] you know…...Ive been living in this country for 19 years and…two years ago I came by chance to visit a friend of mine and then I applied to live here because there is a Greek community so lots of Greek people. Its good to come into our own community, it gives you a sense of belonging, you can relate better, the Mosque is closer, it is time for the childrens religious bringing up as well….so there are lots of benefits. return


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