2 Basic Wildland Fire Management ObjectivesUpon completion of this section, you will be able to:List 6 major environmental factors related to fireline hazardsIdentify fire conditions present during fire entrapmentsRecognize hazards associated with fire operations in wildland urban interfaceList 3 major human factors related to fireline hazardsIdentify measures to prevent fatigueDescribe each component of acronym LACESIdentify 6 critical elements of a briefing
3 Basic Wildland Fire Management Fire EntrapmentDefined as firefighter being surrounded by uncontrolled wildfire and unable to access safety zonesCommon denominators in 125 fire entrapments include:Unburned fuels between fire and firefightersFine fuels, particularly cured grassesStrong, erratic winds, particularly associated with thunderstormsSteep slopesCommunication failuresLack of experience or overconfidenceFire entrapment is the most obvious environmental hazard associated with wildland firefighting. It occurs when firefighters are surrounded by uncontrolled wildfire and are unable to access established safety zones via pre‑determined escape routes. In most fatal entrapments the common unsuccessful strategy was to run from the advancing fire. After being felled by exhaustion and radiant heat, death would occur from excessive radiant heat, burns, inhalation of smoke and hot gases, and/or lack of oxygen. Fire conditions that were present during 125 fatal or near fatal fire entrapments included:Unburned fuels between the fire head and the crewFine fuels, particularly long, cured grasses or brushStrong, shifting or gusty winds, particularly when thunderstorms are approachingSteep slopes, particularly when firefighters are above the fire or when unburned fuels exist on the slope below the fireMultiple spot fires or extensive spotting activityCommunication failuresLack of experience or overconfidence
4 Basic Wildland Fire Management Fireline EvacuationIf fireline evacuation is required, then:Meet a pre-determined locationSupervisor will set pace and appoint person to go lastIf situation is serious, drop all tools and equipment in favour of speedSupervisor will do head count at safety zone and establish radio contactThe best defense against fire entrapment is avoidance. Crews must exercise conservative judgment when deciding to move back into effective safety zones. Timely retreat avoids the confusion and panic and the potential for tragic errors that can result from last‑minute fireline evacuations.Know where the fire is and what it is doing at all timesKeep closer together if fire activity or other factors increase the hazardPair less experienced firefighters with experienced firefightersMaintain communications with your supervisor and other firefighters in your areaAlways have at least two escape routes, which are cleared, marked and known to all firefighters in your areaSelect safety zones that are free from hazards (e.g. fire, smoke, rolling debris, overhead hazards)If a fireline evacuation is required, don’t panic. Meet in a pre-determined location for a quick head count at which time your supervisor will inform you of the situation. Your supervisor will go first and set a reasonable pace. A person will be appointed to go last with a radio to ensure no one is left behind. Running is not permitted. Firefighters should carry their fireline packs, hand tools and chainsaws. Chainsaws can be traded off to ease firefighter exertion. If the situation is serious, drop all tools and equipment in favour of speed in escaping. If smoke becomes too thick, use a bandana and goggles, get low to the ground and tighten up spacing. Once at the safety zone, your supervisor will conduct another head count.
5 Fire Entrapment Survival Basic Wildland Fire ManagementFire Entrapment SurvivalIf you don’t have any equipment, then:Seek out possible survival zonesLie flat on ground and protect yourself as much as possibleAvoid inhaling dense smoke or super-heated airIf in a vehicle, then:Roll-up windows, switch on headlights and parkLie flat on floor and protect yourself as much as possibleIf heavy fuels, lie in uphill ditchFire Entrapment Survival - No Equipment. If your safety zone is inaccessible, seek out potential survival zones (e.g. rockslides, clearings, wet areas, previously burned areas, etc.). In grass, low shrubs or other light fuels, this may mean passing through the flame front into the burned area. After covering exposed skin and taking several breaths, move through the flame front as quickly as possible. If you are in dead grass or low shrub fuels and approaching flames that are too high to run through, burnout as large an area as possible between you and the fire edge, and then step into the burned area. Lie flat on an area that will not burn with your head down, a person’s chance of survival is greater in this position than kneeling or standing upright. Protect yourself as much as possible. Radiated heat quickly causes heat stroke, a state of complete exhaustion. For protection against radiation, cover the head and other exposed skin with clothing or dirt. Avoid inhaling dense smoke or super-heated air. A dry cloth placed over the mouth will help. Your lungs are better able to withstand dry heat than moist heat.Fire Entrapment Survival - Vehicle. In situations where you or part of a crew may be trapped in a vehicle, it’s suggested that you switch on the headlights and park where roadside vegetation is sparse and short as far away as possible from the leading edge of the fire. Wearing all safety clothing, roll up windows, and lie face down on the floor with floor mats or extra clothing over your body. In heavy fuels survival inside the vehicle is poor, so it’s suggested you leave the vehicle and lie in the uphill ditch of the road and cover your body with clothing or dirt. Never lie under or shelter too close to a vehicle suspected to burn, they do burn with extreme intensity.
6 Other Environmental Factors Basic Wildland Fire ManagementOther Environmental FactorsFalling timberFire-weakened timberSnagsWidowmakersAsh pitsRolling debrisFalling timber can be considered in three categories: fire-weakened timber, snags, and widowmakers. Firefighters must be aware of the hazards, advise others of unsafe conditions, use the appropriate personal protective equipment (i.e. head protection), and follow their supervisor’s instructions.Fire-weakened Timber. Timber that remains standing in a burned‑over forest may be substantially weakened. Root structures, particularly in rocky or alpine soils, may be burned out and thus have lost their ability to support the tree. What’s more, high intensity ground fire and/or heavy equipment used for fireline construction can destroy so much of the tree stem at ground level that the tree is likely to fall with the first strong wind. Some tree species have thick bark layers, which can be weakened by fire. As a result, huge slabs of bark can fall away from the tree stem unexpectedly.Snags. Snags are defined as any dead or dying tree, 3m or more in height. Dangerous snags are trees in which the supporting root structures, or complete portions of the tree stem, often near the top, may be entirely unstable. The slightest disturbance can trigger the collapse of the tree, or parts of it, with potentially deadly consequence to any personnel within falling distance. Snags have been coined as ‘silent killers.’Widowmakers. Widowmakers have been termed ‘death from above.’ They’re defined as a limb, even a relatively small branch, which has the possibility of falling from the tree and seriously injuring someone.Ash pits are areas of hot ash that result from large logs, etc. burning very hot and being completely combusted. They’re a slightly different colour from the surrounding ash, so that they may be difficult to discern with an untrained eye. Firefighters can walk or fall into a pit and suffer severe burns. For that reason, you should ensure you’re wearing the appropriate PPE (i.e. fire resistant clothing, boots with 8in leather uppers), and make sure of your footing (i.e. avoid hotspots).High severity fires remove thick layers of organic soil exposing rocks and other debris. As a consequence of fire suppression activities (i.e. water delivery, heavy equipment use, helicopter downwash, firefighter movements), slopes can be destabilized. Firefighters must beware of rolling debris (e.g. logs, loose rocks, burning embers) dislodged by other workers, equipment and the fire itself, particularly on steep side hills. If burning embers ignite unburned fuels below where you’re working, you could become trapped.Bottom Photo: 2004 WBNP Klewi Complex shows large logs completely combusted
7 Basic Wildland Fire Management Problem BearsSituationBlack BearGrizzly BearAt a distanceAlert bear to your presence, back away or detour, scare away with noiseClose encounter (50ft)Back away slowly and quietlyBack away slowly and quietly, climb a treeVery close encounter (30ft)Stand your groundBear ChargesShoot, Fight backShoot, Play deadBear treats you as preyBears. When working in bear country, make noise (e.g. talking or whistling) where visibility is limited to avoid surprising a bear, don’t mask your natural scent that can deter bears with colognes, etc. and avoid carrying foodstuffs unless in airtight containers. Every bear defends a critical space; the size of the space varies with each bear and each situation. Intrusion into this space is considered a threat and may provoke an attack. In some cases, a bear that’s threatened may engage in displays intended to scare away an opponent. These may include huffing, panting, hissing or growling; looking directly at you, sometimes with a lowered head or ears laid back; slapping one or both feet on the ground; or charging within several metres then stopping suddenly and veering to the side. Threat displays maybe followed an attack, but may end with the bear walking away. Although there aren’t any hard and fast rules about what to do when you confront a bear, the following suggestions may be helpful. If you see a bear at a distance, alert the bear to your presence. Quietly walk back the way you came or make a wide detour around the bear. Don’t shout or make sudden movements that might provoke the bear. Help the bear to identify you as a person by talking in low tones, slowly waving your arms and staying upwind so the bear can smell you. Don’t run unless you’re sure you can reach a safe place, running may cause the bear to chase you. Climb a tree as high as possible if one is available. Although black bears can climb trees, it may feel less threatened if you climb out of his way. If the bear is less than 10m away, it’s usually best to stand your ground. Playing dead may prevent serious injury if attacked by a grizzly bear. Lie on your side, curled in a ball, legs tightly drawn into your chest with your hands clasped behind your neck. Alternately, lie flat on the ground with your face down and fingers clasped behind your neck. If a black bear attacks you, don’t play dead. Defend yourself with whatever means available. You want to appear dominant and frighten the bear.
8 Other Problem Wildlife Basic Wildland Fire ManagementOther Problem WildlifeRattlesnakes:Wear high boots, long pants and heavy socksIf you encounter a snake, move slowly and quietly in opposite directionIf bitten, prevent absorption and seek medical attention immediatelySpiders:Brown recluse venom causes tissue necrosisBlack widow venom attacks nervous systemIf bitten, seek medical attentionRattlesnakes. Rattlesnakes are found in most Canadian provinces. In areas were rattlesnakes may be encountered, wear high boots, long pant and heavy socks. Watch your step. Be careful when stepping out of vehicles, etc. and don’t place your feet where you can’t see them. Listen for the sound of their rattle (i.e. resembles buzzing of bee). If you hear a rattlesnake, freeze and don’t move until you have determined its location then move slowly and quietly in the opposite direction. Remain calm and restrict movement. Rattlesnake bites can be fatal, so seek medical attention immediately. A rattlesnake bite leaves 2 puncture holes in the skin. Local swelling and discoloration, severe pain, weakness, nausea, vomiting and chills follow. Breathing may be affected. On-scene first aid treatment is to prevent absorption of the venom. First, place casualty at rest, support the affected limb and lower it below heart level. Next, apply a constricting band between the bite and the heart, but not so tight as to cut-off circulation. Transport the casualty immediately.Spiders. Though most spiders are venomous few are considered a health threat. The venom of most spiders isn’t very toxic to human, usually resulting in no more than a slight swelling, inflammation or itching sensation. Spiders rarely bite humans; they usually won’t attempt to bite unless trapped against the skin. Most spider’s fangs are too small or weak to puncture human skin. The 2 spiders that can be a health risk are the brown recluse and black widow. The brown recluse spider is light brown in colour with a violin-shaped marking on its midsection and about 1.3cm in length. It’s found in dark, secluded indoor places. Its venom has a local action, destroying tissue and producing a small, white blister that enlarges to about 5cm in diameter. Eventually, the affected tissue will die and leave a sunken, ulcerated sore. The wound may take as long as 6-8 weeks to heal. To avoid being bitten, shake out shoes and clothes before wearing, check bed linens, and wear gloves when working around potential habitats. If you believe a brown recluse spider has bitten you, apply antiseptic to prevent infection and ice packs to relieve swelling and pain and seek immediate medical attention. The black widow spider has a somewhat round, shiny black abdomen with red markings that resemble an hourglass on the underside. It’s about 1.3cm in length. It’s generally found under rocks and fallen trees outdoors. Its venom attacks the nervous system, and reactions include increased temperature and blood pressure, profuse sweating, dizziness, blurred vision, nausea and pain and swelling around the bite. Antitoxin is available to combat the venom. If bitten, seek medical attention immediately. To avoid getting bitten, wear leather gloves when working around potential habitats.
9 Issues in the Wildland Urban Interface Basic Wildland Fire ManagementIssues in the Wildland Urban InterfaceWUI hazards:Equipment traps such as septic tanks, bridge limits and road gradesFlammable liquids in above ground fuel tanksPowerlinesToxic, highly combustible or explosive materialsDon’t enter or climb onto structures without appropriate training and PPEIf you suspect hazardous materials, stay uphill and upwind, and warn others in areaFire behaviour in WUI fires is unusual because it’s a combination of the patterns of burning in man-made structures and vegetation. Heat release from burning structures is significantly higher than an equivalent area of vegetative fuels, but, unlike a wildland fire that spreads, a structural fire is generally confined to buildings. The materials used to construct structures are heavier, with lower fuel moisture content, so the residence time of flames is longer and temperatures are higher. Wildland firefighters should be aware of the hazards associated with fire operations in the WUI.Equipment traps such as septic tanks, bridge limits and road grades to small to allow large equipmentFlammable liquids in above ground fuel tanks (e.g. gasoline, propane, diesel)PowerlinesToxic, highly combustible or explosive materials may be stored in outbuildingsFire-induced hysteria on the part of homeowners that could lead to rash actsHowever, it’s important to make it clear that wildland firefighters will NOT enter structures or climb onto roofs without appropriate training and personal protective equipment. Additionally, you should avoid locked outbuildings that may contain hazardous materials. If you encounter what you suspect may be hazardous materials, stay uphill and upwind, avoid breathing smoke and warn others in the immediate vicinity.
10 Issues in the Wildland Urban Interface Basic Wildland Fire ManagementIssues in the Wildland Urban InterfacePropane Tanks:Clear vegetation within 10m of tankIf low fire impingement, extinguish fire and cool tankIf high fire impingement, evacuate 1km uphill and upwindPowerlines:If within 30m of downed line, shuffle or bunny hop awayIf vehicle contacts downed line, drive clear or stay inside vehicleIf this isn’t possible, jump clear of vehicle without touching itPropane Tanks. Propane tanks are found in many interface areas, and can become an explosive hazard when they are burned over, or when they are damaged by equipment used in the suppression effort. Ideally, residents will have located propane tanks at least 10m from any structures and maintained a fuel free area around the tank. If the tank has been under low levels of fire impingement for brief periods, extinguish the fire where possible and continue to cool the tank with water. If the tank has been under heavy fire impingement for long or indeterminate periods of time, evacuate about 1km uphill and upwind from the installation. In addition, you should inform any aircraft operating on the incident of the potential hazard.Powerlines. If anything makes contact with a high voltage powerline (e.g. tree) or if a broken powerline falls to the ground, electricity will flow to the ground and spread out in concentric circles like the ripples in a pool of water. If the ground becomes energized, you can avoid shock by keeping your feet close together and taking short, shuffle-like steps, never allowing the heel of one foot to move beyond the toe of the other until you are clear of the energized area (i.e. 30m). Alternately, you can hop with both feet together. If you fall, stay down and roll away keeping your arms and legs together. If your vehicle contacts a downed line, try to drive clear. If this isn’t possible, stay inside the vehicle until a power company employee tells you the power has been turned off. If you must get out because of fire, jump clear without touching the vehicle. Utility companies should be contacted immediately to deactivate any power lines in the fire area that may endanger firefighters.
11 Basic Wildland Fire Management FatigueDefined as degradation of performance3 types: acute, cumulative and chronicEnvironmental factors contribute to fatigueMitigate fatigue by:Take frequent breaksReplace fluids (i.e. up to 15L per day)Eat frequentlyMaintain high level of fitnessRest 1hr for every 2hr workedFatigue is defined as the degradation of performance during an extended period of time. Studies have shown there are 3 types of fatigue: acute (i.e. end of day), cumulative (i.e. multiple long days), and chronic (i.e. stress reaction, which the individual may not be aware of). Environmental factors also contribute to fatigue. Temperature, noise, visibility and physical restrictions can all lead to and increase levels of fatigue. The following measures can be taken to prevent fatigue.Take frequent breaks during work operations, and increase the number and length of breaks after 8hr workedReplace fluids (i.e. up to 15L per day)Since firefighters can burn up to 4,000 calories a day above normal daily needs, you should eat frequently to keep energy levels upMaintain high level of fitness (i.e. aerobic endurance and muscular strength)Rest 1hr for every 2hr worked
12 Basic Wildland Fire Management Heat StressHeat ExhaustionSigns: skin is cool/sweaty/pale and pulse is weak/fastSymptoms: dizziness, fatigue, headache and nauseaTo treat: drink lightly salted fluids and rest in shaded areaHeat StrokeSigns: skin is hot/dry/red and pulse is strong/fastSymptoms: mental confusion, loss of consciousness and convulsionsTo treat: cool victim immediately and treat for shockHeat stress occurs when the body’s temperature rises over safe limits. Heat stress disorders are divided into two categories: heat exhaustion and heat stroke. Heat exhaustion is caused by a failure to replace water and salt lost in perspiration.To treat, drink lightly salted fluids and rest in a shaded area. Prevent by drinking enough water and eating enough of the foods rich in electrolytes (e.g. bananas, citrus and dairy products). Don’t rely on thirst to indicate heat exhaustion. A conscious effort must be made to replace fluids frequently throughout the day. Untreated heat exhaustion can develop into the more serious heat stroke.To treat, cool the victim immediately by immersing in cold water or soaking clothing with cold water and fanning to promote cooling. Continue until temperature drops below 39°C rest in a shaded area. Treat for shock once temperature is lowered. It is a life‑threatening condition-priority medivac required. Brain damage or death can result if treatment is delayed.
14 Basic Wildland Fire Management Smoke Exposure5% of firefighters exceed occupational exposure limitsHard breathing, extended hours and high elevations intensify smoke hazardMitigate smoke hazard by:Advise firefighters to stay out of smoke whenever possibleRotate personnel out of heavy smoke areas every 2hrBrief intense smoke exposure (e.g. during direct attack, mop-up, hotspotting) can exceed tolerable limits. What’s more, hard breathing, extended hours and high elevations can intensity smoke hazards. The major air toxics in wildfire smoke that are a threat to human health and welfare are carbon monoxide and particulate matter. Advising personnel to stay out of smoke where possible, and rotating personnel out of heavy smoke concentration areas every 2hr can mitigate smoke exposure.Carbon Monoxide (CO). CO reduces oxygen carrying capacity of blood. Its negative effects depend on duration of exposure, CO concentration and level of physical activity during exposure. Low exposure can cause dizziness, nausea and reduction of motor skills and mental acuity. However, the effects are reversible, half-life of CO is about 4hr. High exposure can cause death.Particulate Matter (PM). About 90% or particulate produced from combustion of organic matter are less than 10µm. Coarse PM (i.e. less than 10µm) can be inhaled into your nose and throat, which can cause upper respiratory tract and eye irritation.
15 Personal Protective Equipment Basic Wildland Fire ManagementPersonal Protective EquipmentFire-resistant clothingHead protectionEye protectionHearing protectionHand protectionFoot protectionAccessoriesClothingFire resistant clothing must be worn during pre-suppression and suppression activities and any associated flights. Clothing worn underneath an outer layer of flame resistant clothing should be made of fire resistant or natural fiber fabrics (i.e. cotton or wool) that will not melt when exposed to heat. This applies to any article of clothing including shirts, pants and underwear. Relatively loose‑fitting clothes are preferable for freedom‑of‑movement; such clothes also reduce transmission of radiant heat through the fabric when working close to open flame.Flame resistant clothing should be inspected periodically by the user for signs of damage. It’s the responsibility of the user to report damaged fire resistant clothing to their supervisor. Damaged fire resistant clothing should be repaired or replaced as soon as possible if:Contact with flammable liquids (e.g. chainsaw gas)Contact with chemicals (e.g. acid)Scorching as result of contact with open flameBreak in fabricHead ProtectionApproved high visibility hard hats must be equipped with a chinstrap and worn when on the fireline or during operations that expose workers to overhead hazards (e.g. during slinging operations, when working near chainsaw operations, etc.). No items (e.g. pressure dressings, etc.) should be placed between the helmet shell and suspension. Hard hats that have been struck or dropped from heights should be replaced even if no damage is visible.Eye ProtectionEye protection must be worn during operations that expose workers to potential eye injury (i.e. when working with chainsaws, high-pressure fire hose, chemical products, or near aircraft, etc.). Contact lenses must not be worn on the fireline due to possibility of sustaining an eye injury or infection.Hearing ProtectionHearing protection (i.e. earmuffs, earplugs) must be worn whenever firefighters will be exposed to loud noise (e.g. when working with fire pumps, near aircraft, etc.). When exposed to excessive noise, all persons must either be provided with the correct hearing protection, or vacate the exposure area. You should ensure your hands are clean when inserting earplugs, since dirt and bacteria can lead to ear infections. Likewise earmuff cushions should be cleaned regularly. Disposable earplugs should be replaced when they are soiled or are no longer providing a tight seal within the ear canal. Hearing protectors should be checked regularly for wear and tear that might make them less effective.Hand ProtectionGloves should be constructed of leather and be reasonably tight-fitting. Non-slip rubber gloves must be worn when handling wildfire foam, retardants and other chemicals (e.g. Petrogel, petroleum products).Foot ProtectionA boot with 8in leather uppers and a composition, non‑skid sole (e.g. Vibram) is the recommended footwear for wildland firefighters. It must meet the safety standards of the jurisdiction in which you’re working. Medium to heavy wool socks should be worn; wool socks help prevent blistering. Boots should always be laced up all the way. Firefighters unintentionally stepping into ash pits can suffer a hot‑foot injury resulting from hot ashes pouring into a low‑cut or unlaced boot top.
16 Wenatchee Heights Burnover Basic Wildland Fire ManagementWenatchee Heights Burnover
17 Basic Wildland Fire Management BriefingBriefing should include:Current and forecast weatherCurrent and predicted fire behaviourOverall objectives as well as tacticsResources availableCommunications PlanKnown hazardsLACES discussionBefore you accept a fireline assignment, you should insist on a briefing. Although the briefing will vary depending on the number of personnel as well as size and complexity of the fire, it should include the following.Current and forecast weatherCurrent and predicted fire behaviourOverall objectives as well as tacticsResources availableCommunications plan (i.e. channel(s), key call signs, etc.)Known hazardsLACES discussion
18 Situational Awareness Basic Wildland Fire ManagementSituational AwarenessSA is knowing what’s going on around youBe alert to clues that warn of lost SA:Gut feeling that things aren’t rightTargets aren’t met and no one asks whyTo maintain SA:Identify existing / potential problemsClarify expectations to eliminate ambiguityContinually re-assess situationSituational awareness is the ability to identify, process, and comprehend the critical elements of information about what is happening to the team with regards to the mission. More simply, it’s knowing what is going on around you. Lack of situational awareness leads to errors in judgment and response during critical events. The loss of situational awareness usually occurs over a period of time and will leave a trail of clues. Be alert for the following clues that will warn of lost or diminished situational awareness.Gut feeling that things aren’t rightNo one is watching or looking for hazardsUse of improper proceduresDeparture from regulations where the consequences of our actions can’t be predicted with any degree of certaintyWhen targets aren’t met we need to question why and systematically begin to evaluate our situationUnresolved discrepancies between 2 or more pieces of informationWhen information we need is confusing or unclearWhen someone fixates on 1 task or becomes preoccupied with work or personal matters, they lose the ability to detect other important informationMaintenance of situational awareness occurs through effective communications and a combination of the following actions.Identify existing or potential problemsContinually re-assess the situation in relation to your goalsClarify expectations of all crew members to eliminate ambiguityRecognize and make others aware when the crew deviates from standard procedures
19 10 Standard Fire Orders Basic Wildland Fire Management Fire Behaviour Keep informed on fire weather conditions and forecastsKnow what your fire is doing at all timesBase all actions on current and expected fire behaviourFirelineSafetyIdentify escape routes and safety zones, and make them knownPost lookouts when there’s possible dangerBe alert. Keep calm. Think clearly. Act decisively.Organizational ControlMaintain prompt communications with your forces, your supervisor and adjoining forcesGive clear instructions and ensure they’re understoodMaintain control of your forces at all timesIf 1-9 are considered, then …Fight fire aggressively having provided for safety 1stThe original 10 Standard Fire Orders were developed in 1957 by a task force commissioned by the USDA Forest Service after reviewing the records of 16 tragedy fires that occurred from 1937 to They were based in part on the successful General Orders used by the US Armed Forces. Shortly after the Standard Fire Orders were incorporated into firefighter training, the 18 Situations That Shout Watch Out were developed. These 18 Situations are more specific and cautionary than the Standard Fire Orders and described situations that expand the 10 points of the Fire Orders. If firefighters follow the Standard Fire Orders and are alerted to the 18 Watchout Situations, much of the risk of firefighting can be reduced.The original Fire Orders were organized in a deliberate and sequential way to be implemented systematically. They were re-organized in the late 1980s to form the acronym FIRE ORDERS in an effort to make them easier to remember, thus changing the sequence and consequently their intent. But, simple memorization without in-depth understanding of how to apply the Fire Orders and what they mean within the context of the fire environment renders them useless. For that reason, the National Wildfire Coordinating Group restored the old Fire Orders in They’re organized in a specific manner in order to facilitate the process of engagement and disengagement. Firefighters can move back and forth through the Orders as the situation changes and make sure the Orders are covered or disengage until they are and then, if appropriate, re-engage. This system develops a greater understanding and teaches situational awareness rather than simple memorization. The 10 Standard Fire Orders are firm. Don’t break them; don’t bend them.
20 Basic Wildland Fire Management LACESLookouts are persons capable of assessing fire hazards that are in communication with crewAnchor Points are barriers to spread from which to build firelineCommunications maintained with supervisor / other firefighters, and instructions are given and understoodEscape Routes are cleared / marked / known and there are at least 2Safety Zones are free from hazards and at least 4 times flame heightLookouts Lookouts should be utilized whenever any of the ‘Watch Out’ situations are encountered Number of lookouts will be determined by terrain, forest cover, fire size, etc. Lookouts must be trained firefighters capable of assessing fire hazards When fire hazards endanger the crew, warn the crew and notify the leaderAnchor Points Anchor point is used to reduce the chance of firefighters being flanked by fire, it’s usually a barrier to fire spread from which to start building a fireline and systematically secure the entire perimeter Anchor points can be burned areas, water sources, large rocky areas, or large areas of sparse fuelCommunications Give prompt clear instructions and ensure that they are understood Firefighters must ask questions if instructions aren’t understood Firefighters must be in constant communication with the other members of their crew Every firefighter is responsible for alerting other firefighters to any fire hazard Maintain communications with your supervisor, crew and adjoining forcesEscape Routes Escape routes are retreat paths that provide rapid access to safety zones Escape routes lead away from the fire or opposite the direction of spread (e.g. downhill, upwind) There should be more than one escape route that leads to an effective safety zone as a single escape route may be cut off Escape routes should be cleared, marked and known to everyone working in your areaSafety Zones Safety zones are locations where firefighters can shelter from threatening fire Effectiveness of safety zone is dependent on its ability to all firefighters to shelter from heat, smoke, rolling debris and overhead hazards Rule of thumb for safety zones is 4 times the flame height Safety zones can be burned areas, water sources, large rocky areas, or large areas of sparse fuel
21 Worker Responsibilities Basic Wildland Fire ManagementWorker ResponsibilitiesWorkers will:Wear PPE providedFollow Safe Work PracticesReport unsafe act and/or conditions to supervisorReport any incident and/or accident to supervisorWorkers have Right to Refuse dangerous workWorkers have a responsibility to take all reasonable and necessary precautions to ensure their health and that of anyone else that may be affected by their work.Use PPE and safety equipment providedReport anything or circumstance that is likely to be hazardous to themselves or others to their supervisorReport any incident or accident to their supervisorWorkers have the right to refuse to perform imminently dangerous work and/or work that will cause imminent danger to themselves or others. Discuss any concerns you have regarding unsafe conditions or equipment with your supervisor.
22 Basic Wildland Fire Management ConclusionSafety is the first priorityYou must anticipate and be aware of fireline hazardsYou must use PPE and follow safe work practicesCan you implement LACES?
23 Basic Wildland Fire Management ObjectivesUpon completion of this section, you will be able to:List 6 major environmental factors related to fireline hazardsIdentify fire conditions present during fire entrapmentsRecognize hazards associated with fire operations in wildland urban interfaceList 3 major human factors related to fireline hazardsIdentify measures to prevent fatigueDescribe each component of acronym LACESIdentify 6 critical elements of a briefing