2 WHAT ARE CLAUSES?Clauses are groups of words that contain a subject and a verb.Sometimes they express a complete thought. These clauses are INDEPENDENT CLAUSES.Sometimes they do NOT express a complete thought. These clauses are DEPENDENT or SUBORDINATE CLAUSES.
3 Independent ClausesSometimes called a Main Clause, the independent clause has a subject and a verb and expresses a complete thought.One independent clause is a simple sentence.Example:Millions of people live in cities.
4 Subordinate ClausesSometimes known as dependent clauses, these clauses have a subject and a verb but do NOT express a complete thought.Dependent Clauses are NOT sentences.Ex: John is a man that people can trust.
5 Adjective ClausesModify nouns or pronouns in the main clause of the sentenceAnswer the questions “which one?” and “what kind?”Usually begin with a relative pronoun, such as who, whom, whose, which, or that.Example: She is a person who truly loves bicycling. ( What kind of person?)
6 Adverb Clauses Modify the verb in a main clause Answers the questions: How?, When?, Where?, Why?, and Under what condition?Usually begin with subordinating conjunctions such as: after, although, as, because, before, if, since, than, though, unless, until, when, whenever, where, whereas, whereverExample: She likes ten speeds because they are versatile.( Likes, why?)
7 Independent or Subordinate? When the sun set.Most people know that camels are stubborn.He paid a low price.Which he bought on sale.Before automobiles were available.Where you ride is your choice.
8 Types of Subordinate Clauses AdjectiveAdverbNoun
9 Noun Clauses Can be used in the same ways a noun can be used: Subject Direct ObjectObject of a PrepositionPredicate Noun
10 Examples S-Whoever rides a bike rides for fun or exercise. DO-Suki says that she wants a ten speed.OP-She is interested in looking at whatever is on sale.PN- The flea market is where she can find a good deal.