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Programming Aptitude Testing Materials, Data analysis Saeed Dehnadi Middlesex University

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I talk about: Test materials –Questions –Mental Models –Answer Sheet –Mark Sheet –Interpretation Algorithms Results –Middlesex University (initial test) –University of Newcastle (Australia) –York –Strathclyde –Middlesex University (second test) Collaborators Summary

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Questions 1 (single assignment)

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(M1) Mental model move value a = b; The value of b is given to a and b changes its value to zero. a b // b 0 Ans ( a = 20, b = 0 ) 8th Answer

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(M2) Mental model copy value a = b; The value of b is given to a and b keeps its original value. a b //b unchanged Correct conception of LHS RHS Ans ( a = 20, b = 20 ) 4th Answer

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(M3) Mental model move value a = b; The value of a is given to b and a changes its value to zero. b a // a 0 Ans ( a = 0, b = 10 ) 3rd Answer

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(M4) Mental model copy value a = b; The value of a is given to b and a keeps its original value. b a //a unchanged Ans ( a = 10, b = 10 ) 1st Answer

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Mental models (M5) (copy + add) value a = b; The sum of a and b is given to a, and b keeps its original value. a (a + b)//b unchanged Ans ( a = 30, b = 20 ) 2nd Answer

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Mental models (M6) (move + add) value a = b; The sum of a and b is given to a, and b changes its value to zero. a (a + b) // b 0 Ans ( a = 30, b = 0 ) 10th Answer

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Mental models (M7) (copy + add) value a = b; The sum of a and b is given to b, and a keeps its original value. b (a + b)//a unchanged Ans ( a = 10, b = 30 ) 9th Answer

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Mental models (M8) (move + add) value a = b; The sum of a and b is given to b, and a changes its value to zero. b (a + b) // a 0 Ans ( a = 0, b = 30 ) 5th Answer

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Mental models (M9) no changes a = b; a and b keep their original values. a unchanged // b unchanged Ans ( a = 10, b = 20 ) 6th Answer

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Mental models (M10) Equality a = b; Assignment is a simple equation, and then all equal values of a and b are acceptable. Ans ( a = 10, b = 10 ) and Ans ( a = 20, b = 20 ) both 1st and 4th answers

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Mental models (M11) Swap values a = b; a and b swap their values simultaneously. a b a gets bs value b ab gets as value Ans ( a = 20, b = 10 ) 7th Answer

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Models for a single assignment int a = 10; int b = 20; a = b;

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Answer Sheet (Question1)

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Questions 2 (single assignment)

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Questions 3 (single assignment)

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Question 4 (two assignments)

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Mental model M1 + Sequence a = b; b = a; Model is M1 that applies sequentially through both statements: L1) a b and b 0 then a = 20 and b = 0 L2) b a and a 0 then b = 20 and a = 0 Single answer: a = 0, b = 20

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Mental model M1 + Independent (M1 I) a = b; b = a; Model is M1 that applies independently for each individual line. L1) a b and b 0 L2) b a and a 0 Multiple answers: a = 20 and b = 0 a = 0 and b = 10

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Mental model M1 + Simultaneous-single (M1 Ss) a = b; b = a; M1 Ss Same as (M1 I), subjects only interested on Left-hand-side values of statements and ignores the right-hand-side values. L1) a bandb ignores L2) b aanda ignores Single answer: a = 20, b = 10

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Answer Sheet (question4)

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Question 5 (two assignments)

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Question 6 (two assignments)

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Answer Sheet (question6)

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Question 7 (three assignments)

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Answer Sheet (question7)

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Mark Sheet

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Mark Sheet Interpretation (Tree Structure)

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Mark Sheet Interpretation (Mode Structure)

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Data sample

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Middlesex University Barnet College First Experiment 2005 Data provided by: Saeed Dehnadi Middlesex University

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Experiment Subjects: –30 students from Middlesex University Introductory to programming (Java) –31 students from Barnet College Further Education Programming Course Time: –Week 0 of the course Questions –12 questions

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Categories Week 0 Consistent (45%) Inconsistent (39%) Blank (16%)

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Categories Week 3 Consistent (67%) Inconsistent (33%) Blank (0%)

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Stable group membership (Week3) Data provided by: Saeed Dehnadi Middlesex University

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Pass/Fail statistics (Initial Result) P < = 0.01 Data provided by: Saeed Dehnadi Middlesex University

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Two populations (Initial Result)

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Australian Data University of Newcastle 2006 Data provided by: Simon School of DCIT (Design, Communication, and Information Technology)

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Pass/Fail statistics (First glance) P < = 0.01 Data provided by: Simon The University of Newcastle

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Pass/Fail statistics Exclude m2 P < = Data provided by: Simon The University of Newcastle

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Pass/Fail statistics Exclude m2 P < = Data provided by: Simon The University of Newcastle

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Strathclyde Data The University of Strathclyde 2006 Data provided by: Linxiao Mu

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Mental models in week 20 Data provided by: Linxiao Mu The University of Strathclyde Value assignment Reference assignment

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Value assignment mental models in final exam P < = 0.05 Data provided by: Linxiao Mu The University of Strathclyde

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Value assignment mental models in 4 in-course tests Data provided by: Linxiao Mu The University of Strathclyde P < = 0.01

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Reference assignment mental models in final exam P < = Data provided by: Linxiao Mu The University of Strathclyde

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Reference assignment mental models in 4 in-course tests Data provided by: Linxiao Mu The University of Strathclyde P < = 0.05

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York The University of York 2006 Data provided by: Dimitar Kazakov

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Pass/Fail statistics P < = Data provided by: Dimitar Kazakov The University of York

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Middlesex University Second Experiment 2006 Data provided by: Saeed Dehnadi Middlesex University

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Pass/Fail (Quiz 1) P < = 0.20 Data provided by: Saeed Dehnadi Middlesex University

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Pass/Fail (Quiz 2) P < = 0.01 Data provided by: Saeed Dehnadi Middlesex University

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Collaborators Ireland - School of Computing in DCU Australia - Charles Stuart University Mozambique - Instituto Superior de Transportes e Comunicações, Maputo UK- Bournemouth University (Royal School of Signals in Blandford) UK – University of Birmingham UK – University of Sheffield UK – Kings College, London Canada - University of Toronto Denmark – University of Aarhus USA – A-level in Computing, High school UK - A-level in Computing, North West College Germany – Computing study, teacher training Institution

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Summary Originality We are the first to have an aptitude test that works. Objectivity We have objective test materials that can be used by others. Speculation Students who can handle meaningless rules learn programming more easily.

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To be continue …..

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